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ISRN Oncology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 463594, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/463594
Research Article

Difference in Risk Factors for Breast Cancer by ER Status in an Indigenous African Population

1Department of Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072 Kampala, Uganda
2Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072 Kampala, Uganda
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072 Kampala, Uganda
4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072 Kampala, Uganda
5Morehouse School of Medicine, 720 West view Drive SW Atlanta, GA 30310-1495, USA

Received 22 April 2013; Accepted 10 June 2013

Academic Editors: M. Emoto, S. Honoré, T. Kozu, and G. Metro

Copyright © 2013 M. Galukande et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women globally. In Uganda, it is on the rise, projected at a 4.5% annual ASR increase (age standardized incidence rate). The reasons for this steep increase are not fully established. In the recent past, gene profiling in tumor tissues suggests that breast cancers are divided into subtypes dependent on the presence or absence of oestrogen receptor, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2). These subtypes do have distinctive clinical outcomes and perhaps risk factors from past studies. There is paucity of data on hormonal receptor status and the traditionally known risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study therefore was to establish the differences between ER status and the traditionally known risk factors for breast cancer in Uganda. Methods. An observational analytical hospital, based study, carried out at Makerere University, College of Health Sciences. Formalin fixed and paraffin imbedded sections were prepared for haemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Ethical approval was obtained. Results. A total of 113 women were recruited. Mean age was 45 years (SD14). There were no significant differences in selected risk factors (setting, age, contraceptive use, parity, breast feeding, or menarche) by ER status although ER negative tumors had significantly higher grade tumors (by a factor of two) compared to ER positive tumors. Conclusion. There were no significant differences among risk factors by ER status contrary to what several other studies suggest. The manifestation of breast cancer in Africa warrants further extensive inquiry.