- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 463594, 5 pages
Difference in Risk Factors for Breast Cancer by ER Status in an Indigenous African Population
1Department of Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072 Kampala, Uganda
2Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072 Kampala, Uganda
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072 Kampala, Uganda
4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072 Kampala, Uganda
5Morehouse School of Medicine, 720 West view Drive SW Atlanta, GA 30310-1495, USA
Received 22 April 2013; Accepted 10 June 2013
Academic Editors: M. Emoto, S. Honoré, T. Kozu, and G. Metro
Copyright © 2013 M. Galukande et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. Ferlay, H.-R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D. M. Parkin, “Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 127, no. 12, pp. 2893–2917, 2010.
- D. M. Parkin, S. Nambooze, F. Wabwire-Mangen, and H. R. Wabinga, “Changing cancer incidence in Kampala, Uganda, 1991–2006,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 1187–1195, 2010.
- W. D. Foulkes, I. E. Smith, and J. S. Reis-Filho, “Triple-negative breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 20, pp. 1938–1948, 2010.
- A. Reiner, B. Neumeister, J. Spona, G. Reiner, M. Schemper, and R. Jakesz, “Immunocytochemical localization of estrogen and progesterone receptor and prognosis in human primary breast cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 50, no. 21, pp. 7057–7061, 1990.
- C. M. Perou, T. Sørile, M. B. Eisen et al., “Molecular portraits of human breast tumours,” Nature, vol. 406, no. 6797, pp. 747–752, 2000.
- T. Sorlie, R. Tibshirani, J. Parker, et al., “Repeated observation of breast tumor sub types in independent gene expression data sets,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 14, pp. 8418–8423, 2003.
- M. D. Althuis, J. H. Fergenbaum, M. Garcia-Closas, L. A. Brinton, M. P. Madigan, and M. E. Sherman, “Etiology of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer: a systematic review of the literature,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1558–1568, 2004.
- X. R. Yang, M. E. Sherman, D. L. Rimm et al., “Differences in risk factors for breast cancer molecular subtypes in a population-based study,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 439–443, 2007.
- M. M. Gaudet, M. F. Press, R. W. Haile et al., “Risk factors by molecular subtypes of breast cancer across a population-based study of women 56 years or younger,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 587–597, 2011.
- R. M. Tamimi, G. A. Colditz, A. Hazra et al., “Traditional breast cancer risk factors in relation to molecular subtypes of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 159–167, 2012.
- D. Huo, F. Ikpatt, A. Khramtsov et al., “Population differences in breast cancer: survey in indigenous african women reveals over-representation of triple-negative breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 27, pp. 4515–4521, 2009.
- M. Galukande, H. Wabinga, F. Mirembe, C. Karamagi, and A. Asea, “Molecular breast cancer subtypes prevalence in an indigenous sub Saharan African population,” BMC Cancer. In press.
- Anonymous, Data: Uganda [Updated December 2010], The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA, 2009, http://data.worldbank.org/country/uganda.
- Anonymous, The World Factbook [Updated July 12, 2011], Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2007, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html.
- Anonymous, “Planning and Economic development,” Millennium Development Goals Report for Uganda, The Republic of Uganda Ministry of Finance, Kampala, The Republic of Uganda, 2010.
- J. Klugman, Human Development Report 2010: the Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
- World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory Data Repository, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006, http://apps.who.int/ghodata/?vid=20300/.
- C. W. Elston and I. O. Ellis, “Pathological prognostic factors in breast cancer. I. The value of histological grade in breast cancer: experience from a large study with long-term follow-up,” Histopathology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 403–410, 1991.
- P. A. Bird, A. G. Hill, and N. Houssami, “Poor hormone receptor expression in East African breast cancer: evidence of a biologically different disease?” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1983–1988, 2008.
- O. F. Ikpatt, T. Kuopio, R. Ndoma-Egba, and Y. Collan, “Breast cancer in Nigeria and Finland: epidemiological, clinical and histological comparison,” Anticancer Research, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 3005–3012, 2002.
- J. Ssegwanyi, M. Galukande, J. Fualal, and J. Jombwe, “Prevalence of HIV/AIDS among Breast cancer patients and the associated clinico-pathological features,” Annals of African Surgery, vol. 8, pp. 22–27, 2011.
- A. Gakwaya, J. B. Kigula-Mugambe, A. Kavuma et al., “Cancer of the breast: 5-year survival in a tertiary hospital in Uganda,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 63–67, 2008.
- M. P. Mbonde, “Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in carcinomas of the female breast in Tanzania,” Oncology Reports, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 277–283, 2000.
- X. R. Yan, J. Chang-Claude, E. L. Goode, et al., “Associations of breast cancer risk factors with tumor subtypes: a pooled analysis from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium studies,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 250–263, 2010.
- V. W. Setiawan, K. R. Monroe, L. R. Wilkens, L. N. Kolonel, M. C. Pike, and B. E. Henderson, “Breast cancer risk factors defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 169, no. 10, pp. 1251–1259, 2009.
- H. Ma, L. Bernstein, M. C. Pike, and G. Ursin, “Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk according to joint estrogen and progesterone receptor status: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 8, no. 4, article R43, 2006.
- M. L. Kwan, L. H. Kushi, E. Weltzien et al., “Epidemiology of breast cancer subtypes in two prospective cohort studies of breast cancer survivors,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 3, article R31, 2009.
- D. C. Allred, “The origins of oestrogen receptor, negative breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 2, p. S20, 2007.
- L. Yan, X. Yang, and N. E. Davidson, “Role of DNA methylation and histone acetylation in steroid receptor expression in breast cancer,” Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 183–192, 2001.
- C. J. Creighton, A. M. Hilger, S. Murthy, J. M. Rae, A. M. Chinnaiyan, and D. El-Ashry, “Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in estrogen receptor α-positive breast cancer cells in vitro induces an in vivo molecular phenotype of estrogen receptor α-negative human breast tumors,” Cancer Research, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 3903–3911, 2006.