Table 1: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and breast cancer risk.

AuthorYearLocationStudy designNumber of
cases/controls
Type of controlsAgeComparisonOR/RR/HR 
(95% CI)

Abbas et al. [7981]2008GermanyCase control 1394/1365 Population basedPostmenopausalSerum 25(OH)D: <30 nM versus 30–45OR 0.57 (0.45–0.73)
<30 versus 45–60OR 0.49 (0.38–0.64)
<30 versus 60–75OR 0.43 (0.32–0.57)
<30 versus 75OR 0.31 (0.24–0.42)

Freedman et al. [82]2008USANested case control1,005/1,005PLCO cohortPostmenopausalSerum 25(OH)D Quintiles: <18.3, 18.3–23.5, 23.5–28.3, 28.3–33.7, ≥33.7 ng/mLNo association

Abbas et al. [83]2009GermanyCase control 289/595 Population basedPremenopausalPlasma 25(OH)D: <30 nmol/L versus 30–45OR 0.68 (0.43–1.07)
<30 versus 45–60OR 0.59 (0.37–0.94)
<30 versus ≥60OR 0.45 (0.29–0.70)

Crew et al. [89]2009USACase control1026/1075Population basedAll agesPlasma 25(OH)D: <20 ng/mL versus 40 ng/mLOR 0.56 (0.41–0.78)

McCullough et al. [85]2009USANested case control516/516CPS-II Nutrition cohortAll agesSerum 25(OH)D: <50, 50–75, >75 nmol/LNo association

Rejnmark et al. [86]2009DenmarkNested case control 142/420Danish Nat'l Hospital Discharge and Danish Cancer RegisterAll agesPlasma 25(OH)D: T3 (>84) versus T1 (<60 nmol/L)RR 0.52 (0.32–0.85)
Premenopausal, T3 versus T1RR 0.38 (0.15–0.97)

Almquist et al. [87] 2010 Sweden Nested case control 764/764 Malmo Diet and 
Cancer study 
(MDCS)
All agesSerum 25(OH)D: Q2 (71–86) versus Q1 ( 70 nmol/L)OR 0.84 (0.60–1.15)
Q3 (87–105) versus Q1OR 0.84 (0.60–1.17)
Q4 ( 106) versus Q1OR 0.93 (0.66–1.33)

Engel et al. [88]2010FranceNested case control636/1272E3N French cohortAll agesSerum 25(OH)D: T3 (>27 ng/mL) versus T1 (<19.8)OR 0.73 (0.55–0.96)