About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Organic Chemistry
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 453682, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/453682
Research Article

A Simple, Efficient Synthesis of 2-Aryl Benzimidazoles Using Silica Supported Periodic Acid Catalyst and Evaluation of Anticancer Activity

1Garware Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune 411007, India
2Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, University of Pune, Pune 411007, India

Received 14 March 2013; Accepted 3 April 2013

Academic Editors: D. K. Chand, G. Gattuso, and J. C. Menéndez

Copyright © 2013 Vyankat A. Sontakke et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A new, efficient method for the synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzimidazole by using silica supported periodic acid (H5IO6-SiO2) as a catalyst has been developed. The salient feature of the present method includes mild reaction condition, short reaction time, high yield and easy workup procedure. The synthesized benzimidazoles exhibited potent anticancer activity against MCF7 and HL60 cell lines.

1. Introduction

The benzimidazole nucleus is commonly present in a large number of natural products as well as pharmacologically active compounds [1]. It shows a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological properties such as antifungal [2], antimicrobial [3], anthelmintic [4, 5], antiviral [6, 7], topoisomerase inhibition [8] and anticancer activities [9]. Some of their derivatives are marketed as antifungal drug (Carbendazim) [10], anthelmintic drug (Mebendazole and Thiabendazole) [11], antipsychotic drug (Pimozide) [12] and antiulcer agent (Omeprazole) [13]. Owing to their interesting pharmacological properties, great attention has been paid to the synthesis of benzimidazoles. Two main synthetic methods were well known in the literature. The most common method is direct condensation of 1,2-phenylenediamine and carboxylic acids [14, 15] or their derivatives [16], that require strong acidic conditions and sometimes need high temperature or the use of microwave [17]. The other synthetic route involves a two-step procedure that includes the cyclo-dehydrogenation of aniline Schiff’s bases, which are often generated in situ from the condensation of 1,2-phenylenediamines and aldehydes [18], followed by oxidation with stoichiometric amount of oxidants, such as MnO2 [19], Oxone [20], NaHSO3 [21, 22], I2/KI/K2CO3/H2O [23] or catalytic use of CAN [24] and AIKIT-5 [25]. More recently, 2-alkyl substituted benzimidazoles are synthesized by using hexafluorophosphoric acid under microwave condition [26].

There is renewed interest in the silica supported catalyzed reactions [27]. These reactions have relatively shorter reaction time with high yield and cleaner chemistry. Moreover, the catalyst is easily separated from reaction mixture by simple filtration. There are very few reports involving solid supported catalyzed reaction for synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives. Jacob et al. [28] synthesized 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles by silica supported ZnCl2 catalyst that was found to be of poor yield. Patil et al. [29] developed a method for synthesis of 2-alkyl benzimidazoles using silica supported HBF4. Paul and Basu [30] described the synthesis of 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles by using silica gel soaked with Fe2(SO4)3·xH2O. Recently, Kumar et al. [31] reported silica supported HClO4 catalyzed synthesis of benzimidazoles.

Periodic acid is an easily available hypervalent iodine reagent which is used in the oxidation of various functional groups [32, 33]. However, there are no reported efforts for the synthesis of benzimidazoles by using periodic acid. In this paper, we report an efficient and facile synthesis of 2-aryl benzimidazoles by using silica supported periodic acid (H5IO6-SiO2) as a catalyst (Scheme 1). Further, all synthesized derivatives were screened for anticancer activity against two cancer cell lines, namely, MCF7 and HL60.

453682.sch.001
Scheme 1: Synthesis of 2-aryl benzimidazole.

2. Result and Discussion

Herein, we used unprecedented silica supported periodic acid (H5IO6-SiO2) as catalyst for synthesis of 2-aryl benzimidazole derivatives. In our initial experiments, we choose 1,2-phenylenediamine (1 mmol) and m-nitrobenzaldehyde (1 mmol) as a model reaction for optimization of catalyst and reaction conditions. The results are summarized in Table 1. The use of 20 mol% of H5IO6 catalyst supported on silica resulted in 95% of desired product, 5 g in 15 min at room temperature (Table 1, entry 1). Inferior yields were obtained on lowering the catalyst loading at room temperature (Table 1, entries 2 and 3). Even, on increasing temperature, the yield was not improved (Table 1, entries 6 to 8). In control experiments, the poor yields were found in the absence of H5IO6 (Table 1, entries 5 and 10) at room temperature and 60°C even after prolonged time (10 h). Further, the reactions were carried out with only H5IO6 without silica support at room temperature and 60°C (Table 1, entries 4 and 9) where the yield was not found to be more than 35%. These results confirmed that H5IO6 supported on silica significantly increased the efficacy of catalysts which may be attributed to the increase in available surface area. Thus, we found optimized conditions as the 1,2-phenylenediamine (1 mmol), aldehyde (1 mmol) and H5IO6 (0.20 mmol supported on silica) in acetonitrile (ACN) at room temperature.

tab1
Table 1: Reaction of 1 and 4g under various conditionsa.

Feasibility of the methodology was examined for a series of aryl/heteroaryl aldehydes bearing electron donating as well as electron withdrawing groups under the optimized reaction conditions and corresponding products were obtained in good to excellent yields (Table 2). Presence of electron withdrawing group in aldehyde system fastened the reaction (entries 5f5h) while opposite effect was observed for electron donating substituents and hindered aldehydes (entries 5b and 5h). We have not observed any remarkable change in the reaction time for the different substituted diamines. The reaction underwent smoothly even with aldehyde bearing two functional groups (entries 5c, 5h, 6c & 7c) and afforded corresponding products in good yields (entry 5h). The reaction was carried out with substituted 1,2-phenylenediamine (entries 6a6e and 7a7c) and afforded 2,5-substituted benzimidazoles in moderate to good yields. Using these reaction conditions exclusively formation of 2-substituted benzimidazoles was observed. The products were characterized by their physical and spectral data. Thus, Table 2 illustrates generality and efficiency of this method for the synthesis of benzimidazoles.

tab2
Table 2: Synthesis and anticancer activity of 2-aryl benzimidazoles against MCF7 and HL60 cell lines.

We have also extended same methodology for the synthesis of bisbenzimidazole (8) derivative by using 1,2-phenylenediamine, aryl aldehyde (2 : 1) affording compound 8 in 80% yield (Scheme 2).

453682.sch.002
Scheme 2: Synthesis of bisbenzimidazole.

Although the exact mechanism is not clear, a proposed mechanism for the formation of benzimidazole is shown in Scheme 3. The actual oxidant is H5IO6-SiO2 and not SiO2 as confirmed by our controlled experiments (Table 1). The acidic site of catalyst is anticipated for oxidation [34].

453682.sch.003
Scheme 3: Plausible mechanism towards the formation of 2-aryl benzimidazole.

3. Anticancer Activity

All the synthesized benzimidazoles were tested for their anticancer activity against two cell lines MCF7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HL60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) by MTT colorimetric assay using cisplatin as a standard anticancer drug. The results are expressed as IC50 in μM and summarized in Table 2. Anticancer activity varies with substitution at 5-position of benzimidazole ring. The benzoyl substituted benzimidazole (7a7c) showed the highest potency against two cell lines, while carboxyl substituted compounds (6a and 6b) were moderately potent (with the exception of 6c), as compared to unsubstituted benzimidazole (5a5c). Dichloro derivatives (5c and 6c) exhibited more activity as compared to monochloro derivatives (5d and 6d) against MCF7 and HL60. Substitution of nitro group (5e5g) showed moderate and mostly similar effect for the given cell lines. Compound 5b with phenolic −OH group (IC50 27.63 μM for MCF7 and 28.68 μM for HL60) was comparable to 5h (IC50 29.67 μM for MCF7 and 26.52 μM for HL60) which has additional methoxy group at p-position. Replacing ring carbon of benzene ring with nitrogen atom as in 5i (IC50 30.42 μM) showed better activity against MCF7 when compared with 5a (IC50 35.67 μM), but same compound did not show substantial difference in activity against HL60. Bis-benzimidazole (8) was found to be more active for MCF7 (IC50 17.45 μM) than HL60 (IC50 30.69 μM). All the tested compounds are found to be more effective against both cell lines as compared to cisplatin.

4. Conclusion

We have developed a short and efficient method for the synthesis of 2-aryl benzimidazoles from 1,2-phenylenediamines and aryl aldehydes using H5IO6-SiO2 as catalyst. The mild reaction condition, low cost, easy workup procedure and good to excellent yields as well as the scope for using wide substrates make our methodology a valuable contribution to the existing processes for synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives. Among 18 derivatives, newly synthesized 5-substituted derivatives exhibited excellent activity against MCF7 and HL60 cell lines. The overall activities for all the derivatives tested were found in micromolar range. The current study provides better insight into the designing of more potent anticancer agents in the future.

5. Experimental Section

All reactions were performed in open atmosphere with unpurified reagents and distilled solvents. Periodic acid was purchased from Spectrochem. Acetonitrile and silica (230–400) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was performed using 0.25 mm silica gel coated plates. Column chromatography was performed using the hexane: ethylacetate solvent and silica gel (60–120 meshes). 1H NMR (300 MHz) and 13C NMR (75 MHz) spectra were recorded on Varian Mercury instrument with DMSO-d6 or D2O as the solvents. Chemical shifts were reported in δ unit (ppm) with reference to TMS as an internal standard, and J values were given in Hertz. Melting points were determined on Thomas Hoover capillary melting point apparatus and are uncorrected. IR spectra were recorded on a Shimadzu FTIR 8400 spectrophotometer in KBr disc and expressed in cm−1. Elemental analysis was carried out with Thermo-Electron Corporation CHNS analyzer Flash-EA 1112.

5.1. Cell Culture

Two cancer cell lines, MCF7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HL60 (human promyelocytic leukemia), were obtained from National Center for Cell Sciences, India. MCF7 was cultured in DMEM medium [35] while HL60 cells were cultured in a humidified atmosphere (37°C, 5% CO2) in RPMI1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum.

5.2. MTT Assay

Test compounds were evaluated for anticancer activity against two cancer cell lines using cisplatin as standard anticancer drug. The compounds were evaluated in vitro at a concentration range of 10 μM to 100 μM. The MTT colorimetric assay was used to determine growth inhibition. 100 μL of cell suspension (5 × 106 cells) were plated in 96-well plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. The compounds were dissolved in 0.5% DMSO. Cells were exposed in triplicate wells to these derivatives at various concentrations for 48 h. After 48 h, 20 μL MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) solution (5 mg/mL) was added to each well. After 1 h of incubation, the solution was centrifuged for 5 min under 4000 rpm, and the medium was discarded carefully. The formazan precipitate was dissolved in DMSO (200 μL), then shaken by oscillator. The absorbance at 570 nm was determined on a microplate reader (Bio-Rad Model 3350, Japan). The absorbance values were used to calculate % inhibition at various concentrations and IC50 values.

5.3. Procedure for Synthesis of Silica Supported H5IO6 Catalyst (H5IO6-SiO2)

H5IO6 (2.50 g, 10.96 mmol) was dissolved in 15 mL of hot water (70°C) in a 50 mL round-bottomed flask. To the hot solution was added silica gel (230–400 meshes, 10 g) with vigorous stirring. The resultant H5IO6 (resultant mixture contains 20 wt% of H5IO6) supported with silica gel was dried in oven at 100°C for 12 h to obtain a white free flow powder. The reagent can be stored for 4 months with negligible loss of activity.

5.4. General Procedure for Synthesis of Benzimidazoles (5a–5i, 6a–6e and 7a–7c)

A typical procedure is as follows. A mixture of 1,2-phenylenediamine (108 mg, 1.0 mmol), m-nitrobenzaldehyde (151 mg, 1.0 mmol) in acetonitrile (3.0 mL) was taken, and H5IO6 (45 mg, 20 mmol% supported on silica 210 mg) was added at room temperature. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes. After completion of the reaction (monitored by TLC), filter the reaction mixture over celite. The filtrate was evaporated under vacuum and subsequently dried to afford crude product which was purified by column chromatography using hexane/ethylacetate as eluent to afford pure benzimidazole 5g (227 mg, 95%).

5.5. Procedure for Synthesis of Bisbenzimidazole (8)

A mixture of 1,2-phenylenediamine (216 mg, 2.0 mmol), p-phthalaldehyde (134 mg, 1.0 mmol) in acetonitrile (3.0 mL) was taken, and H5IO6 (90 mg, 40 mol% supported on silica 420 mg) was added at room temperature. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 35 minutes. After completion of the reaction (monitored by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered over celite. The filtrate was evaporated under vacuum and subsequently dried to afford crude product which was purified by column chromatography using hexane/ethylacetate as eluent to afford pure benzimidazole 8 (250 mg, 80%). The spectral data are in full agreement with data reported in the literature. Spectral data of compounds are given below.

5.5.1. 2-Phenyl-1H-benzoimidazole (5a)

White solid; mp 291–293°C; (lit. [21, 22] mp 290-291°C); IR (cm−1, KBr): 3044, 1622, 1587, 1537, 1458, 1439, 1407, 1312, 1274; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 12.91 (brs, 1H), 8.15 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 7.55–7.47 (m, 5H), 7.19 (brs, 2H); 13C  NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 151.2, 143.7, 134.9, 130.1, 129.8, 128.9, 126.4, 122.4, 121.6, 118.8, 111.3; (Found: C, 80.39; H, 5.18; N, 14.38. Cal for C13H10N2: C, 80.42; H, 5.19; N, 14.42%).

5.5.2. 2-(1H-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) Phenol (5b)

White solid; mp 235–237°C; (lit. [21, 22] mp 236-237°C); IR (cm−1, KBr): 3327, 3057, 2332, 1635, 1280, 1037, 840, 729; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 13.21 (brs, 2H), 8.07 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (brs, 2H), 7.28–7.40 (m, 3H), 6.99–7.06 (m, 2H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 158.0, 151.7, 131.6, 126.2, 122.7, 119.0, 117.1, 112.5; (Found: C, 74.25; H, 4.78; N, 13.31. Cal for C13H10N2O: C, 74.27; H, 4.79; N, 13.33%).

5.5.3. 2-(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole (5c)

White solid; mp 274–276°C; (lit. [36] mp 275-276°C); IR (cm−1, KBr): 3368, 3297, 1558, 1431, 1369, 1265, 1132, 735; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 12.90 (brs, 1H), 7.53–7.71 (m, 5H), 7.20–7.29 (m, 2H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 146.7, 143.1, 135.0, 134.0, 132.3, 130.5, 128.3, 122.8, 121.6, 119.2, 111.6; (Found: C, 59.33; H, 3.05; N, 10.62. Cal for C13H8Cl2N2: C, 59.34; H, 3.06; N, 10.65%).

5.5.4. 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole (5d)

White solid; mp 288–291°C; (lit. [25] 287–289°C); IR (cm−1, KBr) 3433, 3055, 1427, 1273, 1091, 829, 744; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6,): δ 13.00 (brs, 1H), 8.23 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.63 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.54 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 2H), 7.21 (brs, 2H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 150.2, 143.7, 134.5, 129.1, 129.0, 128.1, 122.4, 118.9, 111.5; (Found: C, 68.27; H, 3.95; N, 12.21. Cal for C13H9ClN2: C, 68.28; H, 3.97; N, 12.25%).

5.5.5. 2-(4-Nitrophenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (5e)

Yellow solid; mp 300–302°C; (lit. [21, 22] mp 299–301°C); IR (cm−1, KBr): 3335, 2912, 1602, 1514, 1435, 1340, 1103, 856, 746; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 13.39 (brs, 1H), 8.38–8.27 (m, 4H), 7.61 (s, 2H), 7.22–7.20 (m, 2H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 148.8, 147.5, 142.7, 135.9, 127.2, 124.1, 124.0, 122.8; (Found: C, 65.25; H, 3.75; N, 17.52. Cal for C13H9N3O2: C, 65.27; H, 3.79; N, 17.56%).

5.5.6. 2-(2-Nitrophenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (5f)

Yellow solid; mp 209–211°C; (lit. [25] 208–210°C); IR (cm−1, KBr): 3410, 3078, 2686, 1525, 1348, 1078, 972, 746; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 13.07 (brs, 1H), 7.96–8.04 (m, 2H), 7.83–7.89 (m, 1H), 7.72–7.78 (m, 1H), 7.60–7.63 (m, 2H), 7.23–7.26 (m, 2H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 148.9, 147.2, 132.5, 131.4, 130.8, 130.8, 128.6, 124.2, 122.4, 119.1, 111.5; (Found: C, 65.26; H, 3.74; N, 17.53. Cal for C13H9N3O2: C, 65.27; H, 3.79; N, 17.56%).

5.5.7. 2-(3-Nitrophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole (5g)

Yellow solid; mp 205–207°C; (lit. [21, 22] mp 205-206°C); IR (cm−1, KBr): 3371, 3088, 1587, 1518, 1473, 1429, 1346, 1274; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 13.29 (s, 1H), 9.01 (s, 1H), 8.60 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 8.32 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.84 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 7.58 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 7.25 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 148.9, 148.2, 143.5, 134.9, 132.3, 131.6, 130.5, 124.0, 123.1, 122.0, 120.7, 119.1, 111.5; (Found: C, 66.26; H, 3.75, N; 17.55. Cal for C13H9N3O2: C, 65.27; H, 3.79; N, 17.56%).

5.5.8. 5-(1H-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-2-methoxyphenol (5h)

Yellow solid; mp: 218–220°C; IR (cm−1, KBr): 3273, 2926, 1500, 1450, 1265, 1033, 910, 736; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 12.65 (s, 1H), 9.31 (s, 1H), 7.52–7.63 (m, 4H), 7.13–7.19 (m, 2H), 7.05 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 3.85 (s, 3H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 151.5, 149.3, 146.6, 139.9, 122.8, 121.6, 117.9, 114.4, 113.7, 112.0, 55.6; (Found: C, 69.91; H, 4.99; N, 11.65. Cal for C14H12N2O2: C, 69.99; H, 5.03; N, 11.66%).

5.5.9. 2-(Pyridine-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d)imidazole (5i)

Yellow solid; mp 218–220°C; IR (cm−1, KBr): 3057, 2667, 1595, 1444, 1315, 1280, 1122, 850, 744, 615; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 13.11 (brs, 1H), 8.72 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 8.33 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 8.02 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.49–7.69 (m, 3H), 7.21–7.24 (m, 2H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 151.2, 150.1, 148.3, 138.3, 125.6, 123.6, 122.0, 116.2; (Found: C, 78.80; H, 4.60; N, 21.51. Cal for C12H9N3: C, 78.83; H, 4.65; N, 21.52%).

5.5.10. 2-Phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylic Acid (6a)

White solid; mp 301–303°C; IR (cm−1, KBr): 3405, 1680, 1621, 1450, 981, 770; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 13.18 (brs, 1H), 12.79 (brs, 1H), 8.19 (m, 3H), 7. 84 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (d, J = 15.2 Hz, 1H), 7.58–7.48 (m, 3H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 193.2, 167.8, 153.5, 134.5, 130.4, 129.5, 129.2, 129.0, 128.5, 126.7, 124.6, 123.6, 117.1, 114.6; (Found: C, 70.55; H, 4.24; N, 11.72. Cal for C14H10N2O2: C, 70.58; H, 4.23; N, 11.76%).

5.5.11. 2-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylic Acid (6b)

White solid; mp 301–303°C; IR (cm−1, KBr): 3319, 3059, 1681, 1633, 1491, 1261, 1130, 748; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 13.43 (brs, 1H), 12.84 (brs, 2H), 8.27 (brs, 1H), 8.10 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 7.90 (brs, 1H), 7.72 (brs, 1H), 7.43 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 7.07 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 168.3, 158.0, 153.9, 132.9, 132.0, 129.1, 127.3, 125.5, 124.6, 120.1, 117.6, 112.8; (Found: C, 66.16; H, 3.93; N, 10.09. Cal for C14H10N2O3: C, 66.14; H, 3.96; N, 11.02%).

5.5.12. 2-(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylic Acid (6c)

White solid; mp 304–306°C; IR (cm−1, KBr): 3171, 1915, 1668, 1622, 1433, 1315, 779; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): 13.12 (brs, 1H), 12.64 (brs, 1H), 8.28–8.17 (m, 1H), 7.88 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.72–7.57 (m, 4H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 167.7, 167.3, 134.9, 134.6, 132.6, 132.3, 130.0, 129.7, 128.4, 128.1; (Found: C, 54.71; H, 2.59; N, 9.14. Cal for C14H8Cl2N2O2: C, 54.75; H, 2.63; N, 9.12%).

5.5.13. 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylic Acid (6d)

White solid; mp 194–196°C; IR (cm−1, KBr): 3090, 2821, 1907, 1676, 1624, 1425, 1319, 1026, 947, 835, 731; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 13.30 (brs, 1H), 12.77 (brs, 1H), 8.19 (m, 3H), 7.84 (brs, 1H), 7.65 (m, 3H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 167.8, 152.4, 135.0, 129.1, 128.4, 128.4, 124.7, 123.8, 122.4, 119.9; (Found: C, 61.65; H, 3.31; N, 10.25. Cal for C14H9ClN2O2: C, 61.66; H, 3.33; N, 10.27%).

5.5.14. 2-(4-Nitrophenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylic Acid (6e)

Yellow solid; mp 272–274°C; IR (cm−1, KBr): 3338, 2949, 1699, 1604, 1514, 1348, 1213, 853, 774; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6,): δ 13.38 (s, 2H), 8.39 (s, 4H), 8.20 (s, 1H), 7.86 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.69 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 168.0, 151.5, 148.4, 142.3, 139.5, 135.4, 131.8, 128.9, 128.0, 125.6, 124.5, 117.9, 115.3; (Found: C, 59.32; H, 3.15; N, 14.81. Cal for C14H9N3O4: C, 59.37; H, 3.20; N, 14.84%).

5.5.15. Phenyl(2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)methanone (7a)

Yellow solid; mp 221-222°C; IR (cm−1, KBr): 3375, 3061, 1645, 1572, 1321, 902, 707; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 13.30 (s, 1H), 8.20 (d, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 7.94 (brs, 1H), 7.76–7.54 (m, 10H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 195.5, 138.0, 132.0, 130.9, 130.4, 129.4, 129.0, 128.3, 126.6, 124.2; (Found: C, 80.43; H, 4.65; N, 9.31. Cal for C20H14N2O: C, 80.52; H, 4.73; N, 9.39%).

5.5.16. 2-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)(phenyl)methanone (7b)

Light yellow solid; mp 227–229°C; IR (cm−1, KBr): 3298, 3057, 1919, 1726, 1614, 1450, 1294, 981, 786; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 12.91 (brs, 2H), 8.10 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 8.08 (brs, 1H), 7.81–7.75 (m, 4H), 7.69 (m, 1H), 7.58 (m, 2H), 7.42 (m, 1H), 7.08–7.02 (m, 2H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 196.5, 158.0, 154.3, 138.3, 133.0, 132.8, 131.9, 130.0, 129.0, 127.4, 135.3, 120.2, 117.7, 113.0; (Found: C, 76.41; H, 4.42; N, 8.88. Cal for C20H14N2O2: C, 76.42; H, 4.49; N, 8.91%).

5.5.17. 2-(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)(phenyl)methanone (7c)

White solid; mp 164–166°C; IR (cm−1, KBr): 3059, 1734, 1651, 1431, 1317, 970,788; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 13.29 (brs, 1H), 8.05 (brs, 1H), 7.74 (m, 3H), 7.70–7.64 (m, 5H), 7.58 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 195.7, 148.9, 137.8, 134.8, 132.6, 132.0, 129.9, 129.4, 128.3, 120.0; (Found: C, 65.38; H, 3.25; N, 7.70. Cal for C20H12Cl2N2O: C, 65.41; H, 3.29; N, 7.63%).

5.5.18. 2-(4-(1H-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (8)

White solid; mp 245–247°C; IR (cm−1, KBr): 3061, 1626, 1440, 1317, 1118, 966, 846, 740; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 13.01 (brs, 2H), 8.33 (s, 4H), 7.61 (s, 4H), 7.23-7.20 (m, 4H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 150.3, 138.9, 130.7, 127.0, 122.6, 115.1; (Found: C, 77.31; H, 4.54; N, 17.98. Cal for C20H14N4: C, 77.40; H, 4.55; N, 18.05%).

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Professor M. S. Wadia and Professor Dilip D. Dhavale for helpful discussions. Vaishali S. Shinde and Vyankat A. Sontakke are thankful to Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi, for the financial support and Junior Research Fellowship (SR/S1/OC-89/2009), respectively. S. Ghosh thanks Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Government of India, for Senior Research Fellowship (09/137(0516)/2012-EMR-I).

References

  1. G. Balboni, C. Trapella, Y. Sasaki et al., “Influence of the side chain next to C-terminal benzimidazole in opioid pseudopeptides containing the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 17, pp. 5556–5559, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. A. Maxwell and G. Brody, “Antifungal activity of selected benzimidazole compounds,” Applied microbiology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 944–945, 1971. View at Scopus
  3. D. Sharma, B. Narasimhan, P. Kumar, and A. Jalbout, “Synthesis and QSAR evaluation of 2-(substituted phenyl)-1H-benzimidazoles and [2-(substituted phenyl)-benzimidazol-1-yl]-pyridin-3-yl-methanones,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 1119–1127, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. A. Farahat, E. Paliakov, A. Kumar et al., “Exploration of larger central ring linkers in furamidine analogues: synthesis and evaluation of their DNA binding, antiparasitic and fluorescence properties,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 2156–2167, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Valdez-Padilla, S. Rodríguez-Morales, A. Hernández-Campos et al., “Synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of novel 1-methylbenzimidazole derivatives,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1724–1730, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. Y. F. Li, G. F. Wang, P. L. He et al., “Synthesis and anti-hepatitis B virus activity of novel benzimidazole derivatives,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 15, pp. 4790–4794, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Banie, A. Sinha, R. J. Thomas, J. C. Sircar, and M. L. Richards, “2-phenylimidazopyridines, a new series of golgi compounds with potent antiviral activity,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 24, pp. 5984–5993, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. S. Charifson, A. L. Grillot, T. H. Grossman et al., “Novel dual-targeting benzimidazole urea inhibitors of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV possessing potent antibacterial activity: intelligent design and evolution through the judicious use of structure-guided design and stucture-activity relationships,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 17, pp. 5243–5263, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Chen, Z. Wang, C. M. Li et al., “Discovery of novel 2-aryl-4-benzoyl-imidazoles targeting the colchicines binding site in tubulin as potential anticancer agents,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 20, pp. 7414–7427, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. Göker, C. Kuş, D. W. Boykin, S. Yıldız, and N. Altanlar, “Synthesis of some new 2-substituted-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole-5-carbonitriles and their potent activity against Candida species,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 2589–2596, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. N. Vázquez, L. Yépez, A. H. Campos, et al., “Synthesis and antiparasitic activity of albendazole and mebendazole analogues,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 11, no. 21, pp. 4615–4622, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. J. Spivak and Z. Amit, “Effects of pimozide on appetitive behavior and locomotor activity: dissimilarity of effects when compared to extinction,” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 457–463, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Lindberg, P. Nordberg, T. Alminger, et al., “The mechanism of action of the gastric acid secretion inhibitor omeprazole,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1327–1329, 1986. View at Scopus
  14. S. B. Mohan, T. P. Behera, and B. V. V. Ravi Kumar, “Microwave irradiation versus conventional method: synthesis of benzimidazolyl chalcone derivatives,” International Journal of ChemTech Research, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 1634–1637, 2010. View at Scopus
  15. A. K. Tiwari and A. Mishra, “Synthesis and antiviral activity of N-substituted-2-subastituted benzimidazole derivatives,” Indian Journal of Chemistry B, vol. 45, pp. 489–493, 2006.
  16. R. J. Perry and B. D. Wilson, “A novel palladium-catalyzed synthesis of 2-arylbenzimidazoles,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 25, pp. 7016–7021, 1993. View at Scopus
  17. K. Bourgrin, A. Loupy, and M. Soufiaoui, “Trois nouvelles voies de synthèse des dérivés 1, 3-azoliques sous micro-ondes,” Tetrahedron, vol. 54, no. 28, pp. 8055–8064, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. V. R. Ruiz, A. Corma, and M. J. Sabater, “New route for the synthesis of benzimidazoles by a one-pot multistep process with mono and bifunctional solid catalysts,” Tetrahedron, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 730–735, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. I. Bhatnagar and M. V. George, “Oxidation with metal oxides-II: oxidation of chalcone phenylhydrazones, pyrazolines, o-aminobenzylidine anils and o-hydroxy benzylidine anils with manganese dioxide,” Tetrahedron, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1293–1298, 1968. View at Scopus
  20. P. L. Beaulieu, B. Haché, and E. Von Moos, “A practical oxone-mediated, high-throughput, solution-phase synthesis of benzimidazoles from 1,2-phenylenediamines and aldehydes and its application to preparative scale synthesis,” Synthesis, no. 11, pp. 1683–1692, 2003. View at Scopus
  21. M. A. Weidner-Wells, K. A. Ohemeng, V. N. Nguyen et al., “Amidino benzimidazole inhibitors of bacterial two-component systems,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1545–1548, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. E. López, J. Restrepo, B. Pérez, S. Ortiz, and J. Salazar, “One pot microwave promoted synthesis of 2-aryl-1H-benzimidazoles using sodium hydrogen sulfite,” Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1628–1630, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Gogoi and D. Konwar, “An efficient and one-pot synthesis of imidazolines and benzimidazoles via anaerobic oxidation of carbon-nitrogen bonds in water,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 79–82, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Bahrami, M. M. Khodaei, and F. Naali, “Mild and highly efficient method for the synthesis of 2-arylbenzimidazoles and 2-arylbenzothiazoles,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 73, no. 17, pp. 6835–6837, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. A. Chari, D. Shobha, E. R. Kenawy, S. S. Al-Deyab, B. V. Subba Reddy, and A. Vinu, “Nanoporous aluminosilicate catalyst with 3D cage-type porous structure as an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 51, no. 39, pp. 5195–5199, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Mukhopadhyay, S. Ghosh, S. Sengupta (Bandyopadhyay), and S. Deb, “Synthesis of 2-alkyl substituted benzimidazoles under microwave irradiation: anti-proliferative effect of some representative compounds on human histiocytic lymphoma cell U937,” RSC Advances, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 1033–1037, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. K. Wilson and J. H. Clark, “Solid acids and their use as environmentally friendly catalysts in organic synthesis,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 1313–1319, 2000. View at Scopus
  28. R. G. Jacob, L. G. Dutra, C. S. Radatz, S. R. Mendes, G. Perin, and E. J. Lenardão, “Synthesis of 1,2-disubstitued benzimidazoles using SiO2/ZnCl2,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 50, no. 13, pp. 1495–1497, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. V. Patil, B. P. Bandgar, and S. H. Lee, “Silica supported fluoroboric acid: an efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for facile synthesis of 2-aliphatic benzothiazoles, benzoxazoles, benzimidazoles and imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines,” Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1719–1722, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Paul and B. Basu, “Highly selective synthesis of libraries of 1, 2-disubstituted benzimidazoles using silica gel soaked with ferric sulfate,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 53, no. 32, pp. 4130–4133, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. D. Kumar, D. N. Kommi, R. Chebolu, S. K. Garg, R. Kumar, and A. K. Chakraborti, “Selectivity control during the solid supported protic acids catalysed synthesis of 1, 2-disubstituted benzimidazoles and mechanistic insight to rationalize selectivity,” RSC Advances, vol. 3, pp. 91–98, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. S. Yamazaki, “Chromium(VI) oxide-catalyzed benzylic oxidation with periodic acid,” Organic Letters, vol. 1, no. 13, pp. 2129–2132, 1999. View at Scopus
  33. L. Xu, J. Cheng, and M. L. Trudell, “Chromium(VI) oxide catalyzed oxidation of sulfides to sulfones with periodic acid,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 68, no. 13, pp. 5388–5391, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. K. M. L. Rahman, M. Kumashiro, and T. Ishihara, “Direct synthesis of formic acid by partial oxidation of methane on H-ZSM-5 solid acid catalyst,” Catalysis Communications, vol. 12, no. 13, pp. 1198–1200, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. V. U. Pawar, S. Ghosh, B. A. Chopade, and V. S. Shinde, “Design and synthesis of harzialactone analogues: promising anticancer agents,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 7243–7245, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Shen and T. G. Driver, “Iron(II) bromide-catalyzed synthesis of benzimidazoles from aryl azides,” Organic Letters, vol. 10, no. 15, pp. 3367–3370, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus