ISRN Parasitology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Efficacy and Safety of Paromomycin in Treatment of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Thu, 06 Mar 2014 09:40:24 +0000 Background. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) plays an important role in maintaining endemicity of visceral leishmaniasis and its transmission. Treatment regimens for PKDL are toxic and require 3-4 months of hospitalization. These long and arduous regimens result in extensive noncompliance. There is an urgent need to develop a safe, effective, and acceptable regimen for the treatment of PKDL. Paromomycin (PM) has been recently approved in India for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL); hence we tested its efficacy in patients with PKDL. Methods. In this exploratory study, 31 patients with PKDL aged 10 years and above were administered PM 11 mg/kg daily intramuscularly for 45  days and followed up for one year. Results. Out of 31 patients, 7 patients were lost to followup at 1  year and 9 (37.5%) got cured with complete disappearance of lesion, while 15 (62.5%) showed no improvement by per protocol analysis. Conclusion. Cure rate with 45 intramuscular injections of PM was unacceptably low though there was no serious side effect of the drug. Whether paromomycin can be used in multidrug therapy to shorten the duration of treatment should be the next logical step for investigation. Shyam Sundar, Anup Singh, Anurag Tiwari, Saurabh Shukla, Jaya Chakravarty, and Madhukar Rai Copyright © 2014 Shyam Sundar et al. All rights reserved. Parasitic Infections among Children under Five Years in Senegal: Prevalence and Effect on Anaemia and Nutritional Status Thu, 26 Dec 2013 18:38:11 +0000 Although malaria is declining in many countries in Africa, malaria and anaemia remain frequent in children. This study was conducted to assess the relationship between malaria parasitaemia, intestinal worms, and anaemia, in children <5 years living in low transmission area in Senegal. A survey was carried out in 30 villages in the central part of Senegal. A two-level random cluster sampling technique was used to select study participant. Children <5 years were enrolled after informed consent. For each child, blood thick and smear tests were performed, haemoglobin concentration was measured with HemoCue, and stool samples were collected and examined using the Ritchie technique. A total of 736 children were recruited. Malaria parasite prevalence was 1.5% (0.7–2.6); anaemia was found in 53.4% (48.2–58.9), while intestinal parasites and stunting represented 26.2% (22.6–30.2) and 22% (18.6–25.5), respectively. In a logistic regression analysis, anaemia was significantly associated with malaria parasitaemia (aOR= 6.3 (1.5–53.5)) and stunting (aOR = 2 (1.2–3.1)); no association was found between intestinal parasites and anaemia. Malaria and anaemia remain closely associated even when malaria is declining. Scaling up antimalarial interventions may contribute to eliminate malaria and reduce the occurrence of anaemia among children. Roger C. K. Tine, Babacar Faye, Cheikh T. Ndour, Khadime Sylla, Doudou Sow, Magatte Ndiaye, Jean L. Ndiaye, Pascal Magnussen, Michael Alifrangis, Ib C. Bygbjerg, and Oumar Gaye Copyright © 2013 Roger C. K. Tine et al. All rights reserved. Colombian Anopheles triannulatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Naturally Infected with Plasmodium spp. Tue, 08 Oct 2013 08:37:11 +0000 The role of Anopheles triannulatus as a local vector has not yet been defined for malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. Therefore, the aim of this work was to detect An. triannulatus naturally infected with Plasmodium spp., as an approximation to determining its importance as malaria vector in the country. A total of 510 An. triannulatus were collected in six malaria-endemic localities of NW and SE Colombia from January 2009 to March 2011. In the NW, two specimens were naturally infected; one with Plasmodium vivax VK247, collected biting on humans and the other with Plasmodium falciparum, collected resting on cattle. In the SE, two specimens were positive for P. falciparum. Although these results show An. triannulatus naturally infected with Plasmodium, further studies are recommended to demonstrate the epidemiological importance of this species in malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. Doris A. Rosero, Nelson Naranjo-Diaz, Natalí Alvarez, Astrid V. Cienfuegos, Carolina Torres, Shirley Luckhart, and Margarita M. Correa Copyright © 2013 Doris A. Rosero et al. All rights reserved. Oral Administration of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Ameliorates Gut Morphology and Physiology in Malnourished-Giardia intestinalis-Infected BALB/c Mice Sat, 21 Sep 2013 15:10:36 +0000 Malnutrition reduces the host immunity and enhances the host susceptibility to various diseases. The present study describes the effect of oral administration of probiotic Lactobacillus casei to malnourished-Giardia-infected BALB/c mice with respect to surface alterations and brush border membrane enzyme activity of the small intestine. It was observed that probiotic feeding either prior to or simultaneously with Giardia infection to malnourished mice led to significantly enhanced activity of disaccharidases compared with malnourished and Giardia-infected mice. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed less mucosal damage in the villi of small intestine of probiotic-fed malnourished-Giardia-infected mice compared with completely damaged, mummified, or blunted villi of malnourished-Giardia-infected mice. The findings indicate that probiotics can be used as the prophylactic candidate in abrogating the gut and intestinal dissacharidases anamolies in malnourished hosts suffering from the intestinal diseases. Geeta Shukla, Sumedha Singh, and Angela Verma Copyright © 2013 Geeta Shukla et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Leishmania Species Isolated from Cutaneous Human Samples from Central Region of Syria by RFLP Analysis Thu, 19 Sep 2013 18:18:15 +0000 Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease and a public health problem in Hama governorate located in the central region of Syria. The aim of this study was to characterize Leishmania species isolated from human skin samples. A polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay, was performed on skin lesion material samples from 32 patients with confirmed CL by direct microscopic examination in order to prove its usefulness and efficiency for identification of Leishmania species. Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) is confirmed as an etiologic agent of CL in this area. Samar Anis Al-Nahhas and Rania Magdy Kaldas Copyright © 2013 Samar Anis Al-Nahhas and Rania Magdy Kaldas. All rights reserved. Redescription of Female Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, 1915 (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Laelapidae) with Emphasis on Its Gnathosoma, Sense Organs and Pulvilli Tue, 27 Aug 2013 13:19:12 +0000 The present scanning electron microscopic (SEM) study includes the redescription of female Laelaps nuttalli with emphasis on its gnathosoma and pulvilli which were rarely described in superfamily Dermanyssoidea. Chaetotaxy of dorsal shield revealed 40 pairs of setae, 22 on prosoma and 18 on opisthosoma. Epigynial plate carried 4 pairs of setae. Gnathosoma consisted of long basis capituli carrying median hypostome and 2 lateral pedipalps. Hypostome had dorsal labrum of 2 lobes covered with minute papillae, 2 lateral 3-segmented chelicerae, and ventral labium carrying 2 median lobes with laciniae and 2 lateral club-like lobes. Function of labrum papillae might be chemosensory while labium lobules might be mechanical, preventing solid material from entering the oral cavity. Palpal and foreleg tarsal organs comprised 10 and 15 sensilla, respectively. Sensilla of palpal organ were mostly chemoreceptors while those of tarsal organ were probably mechanoreceptors. Each pulvillus terminated with 2 medioventral claws and integumental folds beside longitudinal folds. Ashraf Ahmed M. E. Montasser Copyright © 2013 Ashraf Ahmed M. E. Montasser. All rights reserved. Impact of Eighteen-Year Varied Compliance to Onchocerciasis Treatment with Ivermectin in Sentinel Savannah Agrarian Communities in Kaduna State of Nigeria Sun, 25 Aug 2013 12:17:26 +0000 Baseline and impact assessment data were generated in 1994 () and 2011 () from 6 sentinel villages with generalized onchocerciasis. Only volunteers and a cohort were screened at both visits. Each village had received 11 (64.7%) annual treatments and 92.6%, range 88.7–100%, treatment compliance. Overall mean number of treatment was 2.9 ± 1.6 with a range 2.0 ± 1.2–3.3 ± 0.6. Significant decreases in skin microfilaria prevalence from 201 (38%) to 0 (0%), palpable nodule from 77 (15%) to 4 (0.7%), dermal changes from 51 (9.6%) to 2 (0.04%), optic nerve disease from 24 (4.5%) to 4 (2.0%), and onchocercal inducible ocular lesions from 31 (5.8%) to 12 (2.0%) were recorded, , (-test of unpaired data). Cases of glaucoma, 8 (1.4%), and blindness, 6 (1.05%), remained unchanged. Visual acuity ≥6/24 in one or both eyes, 198 (33.45%); cataract, 169 (28.5%); pterygium 157 (26.5%); and acute senilis, 165 (27.9%), were significantly increased and positively correlated with increase in age (). Dissected parous Simulium damnosum caught () were without infective third stage larva. Active onchocerciasis transmission seems halted despite varied compliance to long-term ivermectin treatment. We recommend continued surveillance and targeted treatment of controlled and hypoendemic areas. Hudu O. Osue, Helen I. Inabo, Sabo E. Yakubu, Patrick A. Audu, Musa Galadima, Lillian E. Odama, Danjuma Musa, Saleh A. Ado, and Mohammed Mamman Copyright © 2013 Hudu O. Osue et al. All rights reserved. Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Spikes in the Tail of Marine Cercariae Mon, 19 Aug 2013 10:50:11 +0000 Spontaneous electrical activity is recorded in two species of marine cercariae, Cryptocotyle lingua and Himasthla elongata, with different types of swimming—by glass microelectrode recordings. Slow local field potentials (sLFPs) of low amplitude and fast high amplitude action potentials (APs) are found. The shape of the sLFPs is different in the species and correlates with the type of swimming. Fast high amplitude APs are recorded for the first time in cercariae. The limited number of APs included in the swimming pattern of larva suggests a key role for the spiking neurons in initiating the motility pattern in the cercaria and needs further research. O. O. Tolstenkov, M. I. Zhukovskaya, V. V. Prokofiev, and M. K. S. Gustafsson Copyright © 2013 O. O. Tolstenkov et al. All rights reserved. First Report of Trypanosoma sp. in Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus): Morphological and Phylogenetic Relationships Tue, 13 Aug 2013 15:09:20 +0000 In Crocodylidae family three trypanosomes species were described, T. grayi in African crocodilian and T. cecili and Trypanosoma sp. in Caimans species from Brazil. T. grayi was transmitted by tsetse flies and the vector of Brazilian caimans trypanosomes is unknown. We characterized first Brazilian trypanosome isolated in spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) from Mato Grosso State in Brazil. Morphological findings in epimastigotes forms from axenic culture showed high similarity with Trypanosoma sp. described in Caiman yacare from Brazilian Pantanal. Phylogenetic studies performed with SSU rDNA and gGAPDH (glyceraldehydes-3-phosphato dehydrogenase glycosomal) clustering in T. grayi Clade and together to genotype Cay 01 from Trypanosoma unnamed species isolated in C. yacare. This is the first isolate of Trypanosoma sp. from C. crocodilus and the phylogenetic position with isolates in C. yacare from Pantanal region and demonstrates the low host specificity of cayman trypanosomes in Brazil. Arlei Marcili, Andrea P. da Costa, Herbert S. Soares, Igor C. L. Acosta, Julia T. R. de Lima, Antonio H. H. Minervino, and Solange M. Gennari Copyright © 2013 Arlei Marcili et al. All rights reserved. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia Mon, 12 Aug 2013 18:37:56 +0000 Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this study was 62.3%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite (23.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (12.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (8.9%), hookworm (6.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.2%). Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was shown to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection ( for both). Furthermore, swimming and less shoe wearing habits showed a significant prevalence of S. mansoni and hookworm infections, respectively. Conclusion. The present study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in the study area. Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was found to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Therefore, there is a need for integrated control programme to have a lasting impact on transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Abraraw Abate, Biniam Kibret, Eylachew Bekalu, Sendeku Abera, Takele Teklu, Aregawi Yalew, Mengistu Endris, Ligabaw Worku, and Zinaye Tekeste Copyright © 2013 Abraraw Abate et al. All rights reserved. Serological and Molecular Evaluation of Leishmania infantum Infection in Stray Cats in a Nonendemic Area in Northern Italy Sun, 07 Jul 2013 14:48:40 +0000 Infection by Leishmania species is increasing worldwide. It was hypothesized recently that cats act as a secondary reservoir for Leishmania infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Leishmania infantum antibodies and DNA in blood samples collected in a sample of stray cats in metropolitan area of Milan in northern Italy, which is a nonendemic area for leishmaniasis. An indirect immunofluorescence antibody test for L. infantum showed that 59 of 233 cats (25.3%) were seroreactive, 38 samples (16.3%) had antibody titers of 1 : 40, 15 (6.4%) had antibody titers of 1 : 80, and 6 (2.6%) had antibody titers of 1 : 160. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seropositive status was statistically associated with seroreactivity to L. infantum () as shown by univariate and multivariate logistic regression (; OR = 7.34). All blood samples that were tested using real-time PCR were negative for parasite DNA. These results were surprising, since no autochthonous human or canine cases of leishmaniasis have ever been reported in this region of northern Italy. It is possible that this high seroreactivity to L. infantum could be due to cross-reaction with antigens from other parasites. Additional studies that include parasite isolation are needed to clarify our findings on feline leishmaniasis in this region. Eva Spada, Daniela Proverbio, Antonella Migliazzo, Alessandra Della Pepa, Roberta Perego, and Giada Bagnagatti De Giorgi Copyright © 2013 Eva Spada et al. All rights reserved. Neospora caninum and Wildlife Mon, 24 Jun 2013 13:07:08 +0000 Bovine neosporosis caused by Neospora caninum is among the main causes of abortion in cattle nowadays. At present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. Serological evidence in domestic, wild, and zoo animals indicates that many species have been exposed to this parasite. However, many aspects of the life cycle of N. caninum are unknown and the role of wildlife in the life cycle of N. caninum is still not completely elucidated. In North America, there are data consistent with a sylvatic cycle involving white tailed-deer and canids and in Australia a plausible sylvatic cycle could be occurring between wild dogs and their macropod preys. In Europe, a similar sylvatic cycle has not been established but is very likely. The present review is a comprehensive and up to date summary of the current knowledge on the sylvatic cycle of N. caninum, species affected and their geographical distribution. These findings could have important implications in both sylvatic and domestic cycles since infected wildlife may influence the prevalence of infection in cattle farms in the same areas. Wildlife will need to be taken into account in the control measures to reduce the economical losses associated with this important disease in cattle farms. Sonia Almería Copyright © 2013 Sonia Almería. All rights reserved. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul Mon, 20 May 2013 08:32:17 +0000 Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population. P. H. D. Cançado, J. L. H. Faccini, H. M. Herrera, L. E. R. Tavares, G. M. Mourão, E. M. Piranda, R. C. S. Paes, C. C. D. U. Ribeiro, T. C. Borghesan, A. K. Piacenti, M. A. Kinas, C. C. Santos, T. M. Ono, and F. Paiva Copyright © 2013 P. H. D. Cançado et al. All rights reserved. Differential Effects on Survival, Humoral Immune Responses and Brain Lesions in Inbred BALB/C, CBA/CA, and C57BL/6 Mice Experimentally Infected with Neospora caninum Tachyzoites Sun, 24 Mar 2013 18:05:35 +0000 C57BL/6, BALB/c, and CBA/Ca mouse strains with different MHC-I haplotypes were compared with respect to susceptibility to Neospora caninum infection. Groups of 5 mice received , , or tachyzoites of the NC-Liverpool isolate by intraperitoneal injection and were observed for disease symptoms. Humoral responses, splenocyte interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production, cerebral parasite loads, and histopathology were evaluated at human end points or the latest at 34 days postinfection (PI). The mortality rates in C57BL/6 mice were the highest, and relatively high levels of IgG1 antibodies were detected in those mice surviving till 34 days PI. In lymphocyte proliferation assays, spleen cells from C57BL6 mice stimulated with N. caninum antigen extract exhibited large variations in IFN-γ production. In BALB/c mice mortality was 0% at the lowest and 100% at the highest infection dose. Serologically they responded with high levels of both IgG2a and IgG1 subclasses, and lymphocyte proliferation assays of surviving mice yielded lower IFN-γ levels. CBA/Ca mice were the most resistant, with no animal succumbing to infection at a dose of and tachyzoites, but 100% mortality at tachyzoites. High IgG2a levels as well as increased IFN-γ in lymphocyte proliferation assays were measured in CBA/Ca mice infected with tachyzoites. Tanja Mols-Vorstermans, Andrew Hemphill, Thierry Monney, Dick Schaap, and Eveline Boerhout Copyright © 2013 Tanja Mols-Vorstermans et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Morbidity Data on Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Two Rural Areas of Jequitinhonha and Rio Doce Valleys in Minas Gerais, Brazil Tue, 19 Mar 2013 10:59:57 +0000 Objective. This study aimed to compare the prevalence and morbidity data on Schistosoma mansoni infection in two rural areas: the Jequitinhonha valley (area 1) and the Rio Doce valley (area 2) in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, covering the period from 2007 to 2010. Material and Methods. The parasitological stool tests were based on the quantitative method of Kato modified by Katz et al. Three clinical forms were considered: type I—schistosomiasis infection, type II—hepatointestinal form, and type III—hepatosplenic form. Results. The prevalence of infection among inhabitants of area 1 was 22.9%, with 2.1% presenting the hepatosplenic form and two cases of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy. The infection prevalence rate in area 2 was 20.2%, with 3.3% presenting the hepatosplenic form. Conclusion and Recommendation. There was no difference in the prevalence and in the morbidity of Schistosoma mansoni infection between the two areas, but it was predominant in young men with a low intensity of infection. The cases of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy in area 1 can be highlighted: these emphasize that schistosomiasis should not be neglected in Brazil. The lack of infection control in both areas may be related to the poor sanitation system, the absence of previous treatment, and the reinfection process. Maria José Conceição, Aline Eduardo Carlôto, Eric Vinaud de Melo, Iran Mendonça da Silva, and José Rodrigues Coura Copyright © 2013 Maria José Conceição et al. All rights reserved. Mucin-Related Molecular Responses of Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Rats Infected with the Nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Sat, 16 Mar 2013 13:03:06 +0000 Although mucins are essential for the protection of internal epithelial surfaces, molecular responses involving mucin production and secretion in response to various infectious agents in the airway have not been fully elucidated. The present study analysed airway goblet cell mucins in rats infected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which migrates to the lungs shortly after infection. Goblet cell hyperplasia occurred in the bronchial epithelium 3–10 days after infection. The high iron diamine-alcian blue staining combined with neuraminidase treatment showed that sialomucin is the major mucin in hyperplastic goblet cells. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that goblet cell mucins were immunoreactive with both the major airway mucin core peptide, Muc5AC, and the major intestinal mucin core peptide Muc2. Reverse transcription real-time PCR studies demonstrated upregulation of gene transcription levels of Muc5AC, Muc2, the sialyltransferase St3gal4, and the resistin-like molecule beta (Retnlb) in the lungs. These results showed that nematode infection induces airway epithelial responses characterised by the production of sialomucin with Muc5AC and Muc2 core peptides. These mucins, as well as Retnlb, might have important roles in the protection of mucosa from migrating nematodes in the airway. Koichi Soga, Minoru Yamada, Yuji Naito, Toshikazu Yoshikawa, and Naoki Arizono Copyright © 2013 Koichi Soga et al. All rights reserved. Morphologic and Molecular Characterization of a Demodex (Acari: Demodicidae) Species from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Tue, 15 Jan 2013 12:22:10 +0000 Demodex mites, although usually nonpathogenic, can cause a wide range of dermatological lesions ranging from mild skin irritation and alopecia to severe furunculosis. Recently, a case of demodicosis from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) revealed a Demodex species morphologically distinct from Demodex odocoilei. All life cycle stages were considerably larger than D. odocoilei and although similar in size to D. kutzeri and D. acutipes from European cervids, numerous morphometrics distinguished the four species. Adult males and females were and  μm in length, respectively. Ova, larva, and nymphs measured , , and  μm in length, respectively. For phylogenetic analyses, a portion of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from samples of the WTD Demodex sp., two Demodex samples from domestic dogs, and Demodex ursi from a black bear. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the WTD Demodex was most similar to D. musculi from laboratory mice. A partial sequence from D. ursi was identical to the WTD Demodex sequence; however, these two species can be differentiated morphologically. This paper describes a second Demodex species from white-tailed deer and indicates that 18S rRNA is useful for phylogenetic analysis of most Demodex species, but two morphologically distinct species had identical partial sequences. Additional gene targets should be investigated for phylogenetic and parasite-host association studies. Michael J. Yabsley, Sarah E. Clay, Samantha E. J. Gibbs, Mark W. Cunningham, and Michaela G. Austel Copyright © 2013 Michael J. Yabsley et al. All rights reserved. Infectivity of Giardia duodenalis Cysts from UV Light-Disinfected Wastewater Effluent Using a Nude BALB/c Mouse Model Mon, 14 Jan 2013 10:46:32 +0000 Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan of public health interest that causes gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. In the city of Campinas in southeast Brazil, giardiasis is endemic, and this pathogen is detected at high concentrations in wastewater effluents, which are potential reservoirs for transmission. The Samambaia wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Campinas employs an activated sludge system for sewage treatment and ultraviolet (UV) light for disinfection of effluents. To evaluate this disinfection process with respect to inactivating G. duodenalis cysts, two sample types were investigated: (i) effluent without UV disinfection (EFL) and (ii) effluent with UV disinfection (EFL+UV). Nude immunodeficient BALB/c mice were intragastrically inoculated with a mean dose of 14 cysts of G. duodenalis recovered from effluent from this WWTP, EFL, or EFL+UV. All animals inoculated with G. duodenalis cysts developed the infection, but animals inoculated with UV-exposed cysts released a lower average concentration of cysts in their faeces than animals inoculated with cysts that were not UV disinfected. Trophozoites were also observed in both groups of animals. These findings suggest that G. duodenalis cysts exposed to UV light were damaged but were still able to cause infection. Luciana Urbano dos Santos, Delma Pegolo Alves, Ana Maria Aparecida Guaraldo, Romeu Cantusio Neto, Mauricio Durigan, and Regina Maura Bueno Franco Copyright © 2013 Luciana Urbano dos Santos et al. All rights reserved. Applications of RNA Interference in Schistosomiasis: Gene Function Identification and Development of New Therapies Mon, 31 Dec 2012 20:20:20 +0000 The study of Schistosoma species has undergone a dramatic change in recent years mainly due to transcriptome, proteome, and genome analyses. In order to better understand the biology of the parasite and to develop new and more efficient/specific drugs, scientists have now the task to translate genetic information into functional data. The present paper aims to review the use of RNA interference (RNAi), a versatile technique used in gene silencing, for the dissection of the cellular/molecular biology of Schistosoma spp. In addition, we will review information on the recent development of a new generation of RNA-based drugs. Examples of specific experimental approaches will be presented and discussed, such as identification of gene function, development of therapies by targeting eggs, miracidia (as a strategy for environmental use), sporocysts (for infestation control in the intermediate host), and schistosomula/adult worms (as a treatment strategy). Furthermore, some of the main advantages, drawbacks, and future directions of these new applications and techniques will also be discussed. Tiago Campos Pereira, Cláudia Carolina Silva Evangelista, Gustavo Borges, Eliana Maria Zanotti-Magalhães, Luiz Augusto Magalhães, and Iscia Lopes-Cendes Copyright © 2013 Tiago Campos Pereira et al. All rights reserved. A Retrospective Analysis of the Results of a Five-Year (2005–2009) Parasitological Examination for Common Intestinal Parasites from Bale-Robe Health Center, Robe Town, Southeastern Ethiopia Tue, 11 Dec 2012 08:40:30 +0000 A cross-sectional retrospective survey using the past five years clinical records (2005–2009) was conducted. The study was aimed at assessing the status of common intestinal parasites from Bale-Robe Health Center, Southeastern Ethiopia, in 2009/2010. The survey involved collection of data recorded on intestinal parasite from the health center during 2005–2009. Precoded questionnaires and interviews were also supplemented for knowledge attitude practices survey (KAPs survey) to assess awareness level of treatment seekers. Analysis of the various associations and strength of significant variations among qualitative and quantitative variables were assessed. The results revealed that Entamoeba histolytica (36.1%) and Giardia lamblia (11.0%), both being protozoan parasites were found to be the most prevalent intestinal parasites encountered during 2005–2009. The least prevalent intestinal parasite recorded was Strongyloides stercoralis (1.1%). Most intestinal parasites were detected among age group of 15 years and above than 0–4 and 5–14 years as shown in Table 4. There was a significant correlation between intestinal parasites prevalence and the age of treatment seeking individuals (). A sharp increasing trend of E. histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was observed owing to low personal and environmental sanitation of the majority of the society. Initiation of health education at different levels could be recommended to mitigate infectious parasites in the area. Bayissa Chala Copyright © 2013 Bayissa Chala. All rights reserved. Searching Before It Is Too Late: A Survey of Blood Parasites in Ctenosaura melanosterna, a Critically Endangered Reptile of Honduras Wed, 28 Nov 2012 09:16:51 +0000 For species at risk of extinction, any parasites they have would be expected to face a similar fate. In such cases, time is running out for efforts to identify and study their parasitic fauna before they are gone. We surveyed the hemoparasite fauna of 50 black-chested, spiny-tailed iguanas (Ctenosaura melanosterna), a critically-endangered species, on an island off the coast of Honduras. Blood samples from captured animals were tested for hemoparasites by thin blood smear and molecular analyses. Based on microscopy, two parasites were identified, a Plasmodium sp. in 14% of iguanas and a Hepatozoon sp. in 32%. For both parasites, parasitemia levels were <0.1%. Prevalence and parasitemias of Hepatozoon declined with increasing host size, a pattern differing from most prior studies of saurian reptiles. From a subset of iguanas with microscopy-confirmed Plasmodium infections, sequence analysis of 454 bp of the cytochrome b gene indicated that the Plasmodium species was distinct from known Plasmodium and was most closely related to P. chiricahuae (96.5% similarity) followed by P. mexicanum (95.8% similarity). Efforts to amplify the Hepatozoon parasite using PCR were not successful. Additional surveys and studies of this host-parasite system would be valuable, both to science and to the management of this endangered animal. Andrew K. Davis, Andrew C. Benz, Leslie E. Ruyle, Whitney M. Kistler, Barbara C. Shock, and Michael J. Yabsley Copyright © 2013 Andrew K. Davis et al. All rights reserved. A Cross-Sectional Study Investigating Cystic Hydatidosis in Slaughtered Cattle of Western Province in Zambia Wed, 24 Oct 2012 10:12:10 +0000 A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2007 to November 2008 to estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis in slaughtered cattle from two abattoirs in Mongu, Western Province, Zambia, using prospective and retrospective data. Out of the 4061 cattle examined during postmortem inspection, 84 (2.1%) were positive for hydatidosis. No cases were detected from Kaoma and Shangombo districts; however, prevalence ranged from 0.6% to 2.5% in districts where it was present. Sex was found to be positively associated with hydatidosis () with female cattle being more likely to have hydatidosis (). In the retrospective study (1994 to 2007), annual prevalence of hydatidosis ranged from 1.56% (n = 12,641) in 2006 to 4.7% () in 2001 with an overall prevalence of 3% (4689/158,456). This value is comparable to that observed in cattle slaughtered between October 2007 and November 2008 (2.1%). Hydatidosis was observed in the lungs (51.2%), liver (47.6%), and kidneys (1.2%). The percentage of viable cysts was 43.7%. This study confirms the presence of hydatidosis in cattle in Western Province of Zambia and estimates economic losses due to organ condemnations. Data presented herein provides a useful baseline for developing policy and intervention measures. Fredrick Banda, King Shimumbo Nalubamba, John Bwalya Muma, Musso Munyeme, and Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu Copyright © 2013 Fredrick Banda et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Kato-Katz, Wet Mount, and Formol-Ether Concentration Diagnostic Techniques for Intestinal Helminth Infections in Ethiopia Mon, 22 Oct 2012 10:33:27 +0000 Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational characteristics (sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV)) of wet mount, formol-ether concentration (FEC), and Kato-Katz techniques for the determination of intestinal parasitic infections. Method. A total of 354 faecal specimens were collected from students in Northwest Ethiopia and screened with Kato-Katz, wet mount, and FEC for the presence of intestinal parasitic infection. Since a gold standard test is not available for detection of intestinal parasites, the combined results from the three methods were used as diagnostic gold standard. Result. The prevalences of intestinal parasites using the single wet mount, FEC, and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques were 38.4%, 57.1%, and 59%, respectively. Taking the combined results of three techniques as a standard test for intestinal parasitic infection, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of Kato-Katz is 81.0% (confidence interval (CI) = 0.793–0.810) and 66.2% (CI = 0.63–0.622), respectively. The FEC detected 56 negative samples that were positive by the gold standard, indicating 78.3% (CI = 0.766–0.783) and 63.2% (CI = 0.603–63) sensitivity and NPV, respectively. Furthermore, Kato-Katz detects 113 cases that were negative by a single wet mount. The agreement between the wet mount and Kato-Katz methods for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm was substantial ( for Ascaris lumbricoides, for hookworm). Mengistu Endris, Zinaye Tekeste, Wossenseged Lemma, and Afework Kassu Copyright © 2013 Mengistu Endris et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Spleen Cells in Susceptible and Resistant Mice with Experimental Lagochilascariosis Wed, 12 Sep 2012 15:34:45 +0000 Lagochilascariosis is an emerging parasitic disease caused by the helminth Lagochilascaris minor. The experimental mouse model has been used to study the immune response against L. minor infection. In the present work, immunohistochemistry analysis of spleen cells populations was evaluated in susceptible (C57BL/6) and resistant (BALB/c) mice experimentally infected with L. minor. The BALB/c mice exhibited increased spleen cell indexes as follows: F4/80+ at 100 days after infection (DPI), CD4+ at 100 and 250 DPI, CD8+ at 35 and 100 DPI, and CD19+ at 100, 150, and 250 DPI. In the spleens of the infected C57BL/6 mice, increased indexes of the following spleen cells were observed: F4/80+ cells at 250 DPI, CD4+ cells at 150 DPI, CD8+ cells at 35, 150, and 250 DPI, and CD19+ cells at 150 to 250 DPI. The index of spleen cells confirmed the differences between the control and infected groups at several time points following the infection. These data demonstrate an association between a preferential increase in the number of CD4+ and CD19+ spleen cells and resistance to experimental lagochilascariosis in BALB/c mice and between a preferential increase in the number of CD8+ spleen cells and susceptibility in C57BL/6 mice. Priscila Guirão Lara, Mariana Felix de Souza Prudente, Neusa Mariana Costa Dias, Denise Vilarinho Tambourgi, Ruy de Souza Lino-Junior, Mônica Spadafora-Ferreira, and Mara Silvia Carvalhaes Copyright © 2013 Priscila Guirão Lara et al. All rights reserved.