About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Pathology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 676390, 4 pages
Research Article

Assessment of Lung Cytological Atypia among Shisha Smokers

1Department of Medical Laboratories (Histopathology and Cytology), College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, P.O. Box 6699, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Histopathology and Cytology, College of Medical Laboratory, University of Sudan for Sciences and Technology, Khartoum 102, Sudan
3Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Hail, Hail 2440, Saudi Arabia

Received 16 July 2012; Accepted 31 July 2012

Academic Editors: A.-J. Kruse and C.-F. Li

Copyright © 2012 Ali Yousif Yahia Babiker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess frequency of lung epithelial atypia among Shisha users. Methods. Sputum samples were collected from 200 subjects (100 Shisha users (cases) and 100 nontobacco users (controls)). Cytological smears were prepared and demonstrated using Papanicolaou and silver nucleolar organizer region (AgNORs) methods. Results. Cytological atypia was identified among 2/100 (2%) of the cases, and no cytological atypia was found among controls. Respiratory squamous metaplasia was significantly higher among cases 42/100 (42%), compared to controls 7/100 (7%) ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ). Shisha users were found more susceptible for bacterial infections 34 (34%) compared to controls 3/100 (3%), ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 0 1 ). The mean AgNOR dots count was higher among cases ( 2 . 3 ± . 2 3 ) than among controls ( 1 ± . 2 ), 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 . Conclusion. In view of these findings, the consumption of Shisha is a risk factor for cellular proliferation activity in respiratory epithelium. The mean AgNORs count is a useful indicator for prediction of the risk of exposure to certain carcinogenic elements that may induce lung cancer.