Table 1: The pharmacological effects of Pimpinella anisum.

SystemEffectPreparationReference

OrganismAntibacterialAqueous and 50% (v/v) methanol extract[18]
Ethanol extract[8, 19]
Essential oil and methanol extract (in combination with Thymus 𝑣 𝑢 𝑙 𝑔 𝑎 𝑟 𝑖 𝑠 )[20]
Aqueous decoction[21]
AntifungalEssential oil[3, 22]
Fluid extract[23]
Methanol extract[24]
InsecticidalEssential oil[2529]
𝑝 -Anisaldehyde from aniseed oil[29]
AntiviralEssential oil[30]
Lignin-carbohydrate-protein complexes from hot water extract[31]

MuscleMuscle relaxant of tracheal chainAqueous extract[32]
Ethanolic extract [32]
Essential oil
Antispasmodic and relaxant of anococcygeus smooth muscleHydroalcoholic extract (60% ethanol)[33]

Essential oil[34]
AnticonvulsantMethanol extract of seeds[35]
Aqueous extract of leaves and stem[36]
nervous systemextract[37]
AnalgesicEssential oil[38]
Fixed oil[39]
Conditioned place aversion in morphine dependenceEssential oil[40]

AntiulcerAqueous suspension[41]
Palliation of nauseaEssential oils of aniseeds, foeniculum vulgar, Anthemis nobilis, and Mentha piperita [42]
GastrointestinalLaxativePhytotherapic compound of anise and foeniculum vulgar, Sambucus nigra, Cassia angustifolia [43]
Increase glucose absorption from the jejunumEssential oil[44]

Renalreduce volume of urine by increase activity of the renal Na+-K+-ATPaseEssential oil[44]

EndocrineAntidiabeticSeed powder[45, 46]
Hypolipidemic

Immune systemAntioxidantEthanol extract[8, 45, 47]
Water extract[8, 47]
Essential oil[48]
Oleoresin[48]
Ethyl acetate fraction ofethanol extract[49]
Anise tea[50]
Increase of 𝛽 -carotene, vitamins A, CSeed powder[46]

Reduction of menopausal hot flashesCapsules of anise extract[51]
OthersGrowth promoter of day-old broilersEssential oil[52]
Reduction of pain in dysmenorrheaHerbal capsule (extracts of anise, celery, saffron)[53]