Table 1: Sleeping pill characteristics.

GenericHalf-lifeExcretionPregnancy and lactationInteractions with food, herbs, smoking

Alprazolam11.2 hRenalPregnancy class D
Enters breast milk
Smoking and St. John’s Wort may decrease levels
Amitriptyline9–27 hRenalPregnancy class C
Enters breast milk
Grapefruit juice may inhibit metabolism; St. John’s wort may decrease levels
Chloral hydrate8–11 hHepaticPregnancy class C
Enters breast milk
Clonazepam19–50 hHepaticPregnancy class D
Enters breast milk
St. John’s Wort may decrease levels
Diazepam20–50 hHepaticPregnancy class D
Enters breast milk
Food and grapefruit juice may increase levels; St. John’s Wort may decrease levels
Dihenphydramine2–10 hRenalPregnancy class B
Enters breast milk
Doxepin15 hHepaticPregnancy class C
Enters breast milk
High-fat meal increases bioavailability but delays peak level timing
Estazolam10–24 hHepaticPregnancy class X breast milk: unknownGrapefruit juice may increase serum levels
Eszopiclone6 hHepaticPregnancy class C breast milk: unknownLarge meals may delay absorption
Flurazepam2.3 hHepaticPregnancy unclassified breast milk: unknownGrapefruit juice may increase serum levels
Lorazepam12.9 hHepaticPregnancy class D
Enters breast milk
Mirtazepine20–40 hHepaticPregnancy class C
Enters breast milk
St. John’s Wort may decrease levels
Nefazodone2–4 hHepaticPregnancy class C
Enters breast milk
Food decreases availability
Nortriptyline28–31 hRenalPregnancy unclassified
Enters breast milk
Oxazepam3–6 hRenalPregnancy unclassified breast milk: unknown
Quetiapine6-7 hHepaticPregnancy class C
Enters breast milk
Food increases absorption rate; St. John’s Wort may decrease levels
Ramelteon1–2.6 hHepaticPregnancy class C breast milk: unknown
Temazepam9–12 hHepaticPregnancy class X
Enters breast milk
Grapefruit juice may increase levels; St. John’s Wort may decrease levels
Trazodone7–10 hHepaticPregnancy class C
Enters breast milk
Food increases absorption rate
Triazolam1.5–6 hRenalPregnancy class X breast milk: unknownGrapefruit juice may increase levels; St. John’s Wort may decrease levels
Zaleplon1 hHepaticPregnancy class C
Enters breast milk
St. John’s Wort may decrease levels
Zolpidem2.5–3 hHepaticPregnancy class C
Enters breast milk
Food and St. John’s Wort decrease availability; grapefruit juice may decrease metabolism