Table 1: Examples of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and their main backbone components.

Table of GAGsHexuronic acidHexosamineGlycosidic linkageAverage sulphate per disaccharide

Hyaluronic acidGlcUA GlcNAc1–3, 1–40
Chondroitin sulphateGlcUA or GlcUA(2S)GalNAc or GalNAc(4S) or GalNAc(6S) or GalNAc(4S,6S)1–3, 1–40–2
HeparinGlcUA or IdoUA(2S)GlcNAc or GlcNS or GlcNAc(6S) or GlcNS(6S)1–42-3
Heparan sulphateGlcUA or IdoUA or IdoUA(2S)GlcNAc or GlcNS or GlcNAc(6S) or GlcNS(6S)1–40–2
Dermatan sulphateGlcUA or IdoUA or IdoUA(2S)GalNAc or GalNAc(4S) or GalNAc(6S) or GalNAc(4S,6S)1–3, 1–40–2

Hexuronic acid—GlcUA: -D-glucuronic acid; GlcUA(2S): 2-O-sulfo- -D-glucuronic acid; IdoUA(2S): 2-O-sulfo-α-L-iduronic acid; IdoUA: -L-iduronic acid.
Hexosamine—βGlcNAc: -D-N-acetylglucosamine; GlcNAc: -D-N-acetylglucosamine; GalNAc: -D-N-acetylgalactosamine; GalNAc(4S): -D-N-acetylgalactosamine-4-O-sulfate; GalNAc(6S): -D-N-acetylgalactosamine-6-O-sulfate; GalNAc(4S,6S): -D-N-acetylgalactosamine-4-O, 6-O-sulfate; GlcNS: -D-N-sulfoglucosamine; GlcNS(6S): -D-N-sulfoglucosamine-6-O-sulfate.