ISRN Pharmacology http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Gastroprotective Effect of Freeze Dried Stripped Snakehead Fish (Channa striata Bloch.) Aqueous Extract against Aspirin Induced Ulcerogenesis in Pylorus Ligated Rats Thu, 29 May 2014 12:11:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/327606/ Channa striata (Bloch.) is a fresh water fish belonging to the family Channidae. The stripped snakehead fish possesses wide range of medicinal properties. In view of traditional use of C. striata for wound healing, the present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of orally administered freeze dried aqueous extract of Channa striata (AECS) in experimentally induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation model was used for the assessment of antiulcer activity and Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) was employed as the standard drug. The various gastric parameters like volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidities, ulcer index, and levels of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde were determined. AECS at concentrations of 40% and 50% w/v significantly decreased the volume of gastric juice and increased the levels of catalase while considerable decrease in free and total acidities and increase in superoxide dismutase were observed with the treatment of standard drug and AECS (50% w/v). All the test doses of AECS markedly decreased ulcer index and malondialdehyde compared to the standard drug whereas AECS 30% w/v did not alter volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidities, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. From these findings, it can be concluded that AECS is devoid of acid neutralizing effects at lower doses and possesses antisecretory and antiulcer activities and this could be related to its antioxidant mechanism. Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan, Abdul Manan Mat Jais, Javeed Hussain, Faiza Siddiqua, A. Gopala Reddy, P. Shivakumar, and D. Madhuri Copyright © 2014 Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan et al. All rights reserved. Clot Lysis and Antimitotic Study of Ficus glomerata Roxb Fruit Extracts Mon, 31 Mar 2014 06:44:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/975303/ The present study was carried out to investigate the thrombolytic and antimitotic potentiality of various extracts of fruits of Ficus glomerata, a traditional medicinal plant, using an in vitro assay method. Three crude extracts such as petroleum ether (FGPE), chloroform (FGCE), and methanol (FGME) were used for the study, with a standard (streptokinase) and negative control (sterile distilled water) to validate the method. The thrombolytic nature of the plant was found significant with methanol extract and chloroform and petroleum ether extracts have recorded mild activity, when compared with the negative control (sterile distilled water). The extracts have shown mild clot lysis, that is, 2.16%, 23.06%, 27.60%, and 47.74% of sterile distilled water, FGPE, FGCE, and FGME, respectively, while the standard (streptokinase) has shown 74.22% clot lysis. FGME inhibited the root growth in number as well as length effectively, followed by FGPE, while FGCE exhibited moderate antimitotic activity and it was supported by mitotic index. Therefore, the obtained results suggest that among all the extracts of plant the methanolic extract has shown highest thrombolytic and antimitotic activity. Kirankumar Shivasharanappa and Ramesh Londonkar Copyright © 2014 Kirankumar Shivasharanappa and Ramesh Londonkar. All rights reserved. A Review on Protocatechuic Acid and Its Pharmacological Potential Wed, 26 Mar 2014 11:36:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/952943/ Flavonoids and polyphenols are heterocyclic molecules that have been associated with beneficial effects on human health, such as reducing the risk of various diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and brain diseases. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a type of widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid. PCA has structural similarity with gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid which are well-known antioxidant compounds. More than 500 plants contain PCA as active constituents imparting various pharmacological activity and these effects are due to their antioxidant activities, along with other possible mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory properties and interaction with several enzymes. Over the past two decades, there have been an increasing number of publications on polyphenols and flavonoids, which demonstrate the importance of understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of both natural and synthesized compounds, considering the benefits from their dietary ingestion as well as pharmacological use. This work aims to review the pharmacological effects of PCA molecules in humans and the structural aspects that contribute to these effects. Sahil Kakkar and Souravh Bais Copyright © 2014 Sahil Kakkar and Souravh Bais. All rights reserved. Effect of Educational Intervention on Adverse Drug Reporting by Physicians: A Cross-Sectional Study Tue, 18 Mar 2014 11:45:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/259476/ In India, the pharmacovigilance program is still in its infancy. National Pharmacovigilance Program of India was started for facilitating the pharmacovigilance activities. The ADR reporting rate is still below satisfactory in India. This cross-sectional questionnaire based study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Uttarakhand, which is a peripheral ADR monitoring centre to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and the practices of pharmacovigilance among the doctors and to compare it with the group of doctors attending educational CME for improving awareness of pharmacovigilance. The most important revelation of this study was that although adequate knowledge and the right attitude about adverse drug reaction reporting were instigated in the doctors after the educational intervention, the practice was still neglectful in both groups, emphasizing the need to design the strategies to develop adverse drug reaction reporting culture. Manisha Bisht, Shruti Singh, and D. C. Dhasmana Copyright © 2014 Manisha Bisht et al. All rights reserved. Antidepressant Effects of Mallotus oppositifolius in Acute Murine Models Wed, 12 Mar 2014 08:23:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/324063/ Objective. Hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Mallotus oppositifolius (MOE), a plant used for CNS conditions in Ghana, was investigated for acute antidepressant effects in the forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Results. In both FST and TST, MOE (10, 30, and 100 mg kg−1) significantly decreased immobility periods and frequencies. A 3-day pretreatment with 200 mg kg−1, i.p., para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, reversed the decline in immobility and the increase of swimming score induced by MOE in the modified FST. Pretreatment with reserpine alone (1 mg kg−1), α-methyldopa alone (400 mg kg−1, i.p.), or a combination of both drugs failed to reverse the decline in immobility or the increase in swimming score caused by the extract in the modified FST. The extract potentiated the frequency of head twitch responses induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine. Pretreatment with d-serine (600 mg kg−1, i.p.), glycine/NMDA agonist, abolished the behavioural effects of MOE while d-cycloserine (2.5 mg kg−1, i.p.), a glycine/NMDA partial agonist, potentiated it in both TST and modified FST. Conclusion. The extract exhibited antidepressant effects in mice which is mediated by enhancement of serotoninergic neurotransmission and inhibition of glycine/NMDA receptor activation. Kennedy K. E. Kukuia, Priscilla K. Mante, Eric Woode, Elvis O. Ameyaw, and Donatus W. Adongo Copyright © 2014 Kennedy K. E. Kukuia et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Experimental Model of Hemorrhoids in Rats: Evaluation of Antihemorrhoidal Activity of an Herbal Formulation Tue, 11 Mar 2014 08:22:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/530931/ Objective. To improve the existing experimental model of croton oil-induced hemorrhoids in rats by using Evans Blue (EB) dye extravasation technique. Further, an herbal formulation (Pilex) was evaluated for its antihemorrhoidal activity in this model. Methods. Two sets of experiments were carried out: first to improve the experimental model and to validate the same using Pilex and second to evaluate the effect of Pilex on cytoarchitecture of rectoanal tissue in croton oil-induced hemorrhoids. In both sets, hemorrhoids were induced to all the animals, except normal controls, by applying croton oil via rectoanal region and the effect of Pilex ointment (PO), Pilex granules (PG), and combination of PG and PO was evaluated. In the first set, extravasation of EB dye, TNF-α, IL-6, and rectoanal coefficient (RAC) was determined. In the second set, severity of score, RAC, and histopathology were evaluated. Results. The elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and extravasations of EB dye were decreased with the Pilex treatment. The cytoarchitecture of rectoanal portion of the animals treated with Pilex was near to normal. Conclusion. The improved experimental model of hemorrhoid is useful in quantifying the inflammatory exudates and extent of inflammation. In this improved experimental model Pilex showed antihemorrhoidal activity, which further validates its clinical usage. Mohammed Azeemuddin, Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry Viswanatha, Mohamed Rafiq, Agadi HireMath Thippeswamy, Mirza Rizwan Baig, Kethaganahalli Jayaramaiah Kavya, Pralhad Sadashiv Patki, and Ramakrishnan Shyam Copyright © 2014 Mohammed Azeemuddin et al. All rights reserved. Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Potential of Paeonia emodi Royle against High-Fat Diet Induced Oxidative Stress Mon, 10 Mar 2014 12:34:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/182362/ The present study was intended to evaluate the effects of Paeonia emodi rhizome extracts on serum triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), atherogenic index (AI), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The plant was extensively examined for its in vitro antioxidant activity, and the preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocols. Male Wistar rats were induced with hyperlipidemia using high-fat diet and were treated orally with hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at the dose of 200 mg/kg bw for 30 days. TGs, TC, LDL-c, and AI were significantly reduced while HDL-c, SOD, and GPx levels rose to a considerable extent. After subjecting to acute toxicity testing, the extracts were found to be safe. The observations suggest antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential of P. emodi in high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemic/oxidative stressed rats. Bilal A. Zargar, Mubashir H. Masoodi, Bahar Ahmed, and Showkat A. Ganie Copyright © 2014 Bilal A. Zargar et al. All rights reserved. Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine Mon, 10 Mar 2014 10:03:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/602436/ In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4 mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6 μg/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6 μg/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects. Hossein Mahmoudvand, Seyyed Amin Ayatollahi Mousavi, Asghar Sepahvand, Fariba Sharififar, Behrouz Ezatpour, Fatemeh Gorohi, Ebrahim Saedi Dezaki, and Sareh Jahanbakhsh Copyright © 2014 Hossein Mahmoudvand et al. All rights reserved. Promotive Effect of Topical Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on Hair Growth in Male Mice Sun, 09 Mar 2014 12:10:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/575423/ Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model. Materials and Methods. Coat hairs on the dorsal skin of seven weeks old male mice were gently clipped and then stained by using commercial dye. These mice were divided into four groups each of five treated with topical application of ethanol 95%, Ketoconazole solution 2%, Minoxidil solution 5%, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin solution 0.1%, respectively. The drugs were applied once daily for three weeks, the clipped area was photographed, and the ratio of regrown coat area was calculated. Results. The results demonstrated that Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin had a significant stimulatory effect on hair growth compared with the control group and Minoxidil was the most effective drug among them. Muhsin A. Aldhalimi, Najah R. Hadi, and Fadaa A. Ghafil Copyright © 2014 Muhsin A. Aldhalimi et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism in the Rat Kidney by Sulforaphane: Implications for Regulation of Blood Pressure Sun, 09 Mar 2014 10:16:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/683508/ Background. We investigated the effects of sulforaphane (SF), the main active isothiocyanate in cruciferous vegetables, on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in the kidney and its effect on arterial blood pressure, using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as models. Methods. Rats were treated for 8 weeks with either drinking water alone (control) or SF (20 or 40 mg/kg) added to drinking water. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured at 7-day intervals throughout the study. At the end of treatment rats were euthanized, and kidneys were harvested to prepare microsomes and measure enzymes involved in regulation of vasoactive metabolites: CYP4A, the key enzyme in the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the soluble epoxide hydrolase, which is responsible for the degradation of the vasodilator metabolites such as epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Effect of SF on kidney expression of CYP4A was investigated by immunoblotting. Results. We found that treatment with SF leads to significant reductions in both, the expression and activity of renal CYP4A isozymes, as well as the activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Consistent with these data, we have found that treatment with SF resisted the progressive rise in MAP in the developing SHR in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion. This is the first demonstration that SF modulates the metabolism of AA by both P450 enzymes and sEH in SHR rats. This may represent a novel mechanism by which SF protects SHR rats against the progressive rise in blood pressure. Fawzy Elbarbry, Anke Vermehren-Schmaedick, and Agnieszka Balkowiec Copyright © 2014 Fawzy Elbarbry et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Composite Extract from Leaves and Fruits of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Diabetic Therapy against Oxidative Stress in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats Tue, 04 Mar 2014 07:18:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/608590/ Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on composite extract (CE) and making small dose of naturally occurring antidiabetic plants leaf and fruits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of CE against alloxan- (ALX-) induced diabetes of Wistar strain rats. A dose-dependent study for CE (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the composite compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, plasma advanced oxidation product (AOPP), sialic acid demonstrating disturbed antioxidant status.CE at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight restored/minimised these alterations towards normal values. In conclusion, small dose of CE possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Brahm Kumar Tiwari, Dileep Kumar, A. B. Abidi, and Syed Ibrahim Rizvi Copyright © 2014 Brahm Kumar Tiwari et al. All rights reserved. Both Castration and Goserelin Acetate Ameliorate Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury and Apoptosis in Male Rats Tue, 04 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/206951/ Although reperfusion of an ischemic organ is essential to prevent irreversible tissue damage, it may amplify tissue injury. This study investigates the role of endogenous testosterone in myocardial ischemia reperfusion and apoptosis in male rats. Material and method. Twenty four male rats were randomized into 4 equal groups: Group (1), sham group, rats underwent the same anesthetic and surgical procedure as the control group except for LAD ligation; Group (2), Active control group, rats underwent LAD ligation; Group (3), castrated, rats underwent surgical castration, left 3wks for recovery, and then underwent LAD ligation; and Group (4), Goserelin acetate treated, rats received 3.6 mg of Goserelin 3 wks before surgery and then underwent LAD ligation. At the end of experiment, plasma cTn I, cardiac TNF-α, IL1-β, ICAM-1, and Apoptosis level were measured and histological examination was made. Results. Compared to sham group, the levels of myocardial TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, apoptosis, and plasma cTn I were significantly increased () in control group and all rats showed significant myocardial injury (). Castration and Goserelin acetates significantly counteract the increase in myocardial levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, plasma cTn I, and apoptosis () and significantly reduce () the severity of myocardial injury. We conclude that castration and Goserelin acetates ameliorate myocardial I/R injury and apoptosis in rats via interfering with inflammatory reactions. Najah R. Hadi, Fadhil G. Yusif, Maitham Yousif, and Karrar K. Jaen Copyright © 2014 Najah R. Hadi et al. All rights reserved. Preventive Effects of a Kampo Medicine, Kakkonto, on Inflammatory Responses via the Suppression of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Phosphorylation in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Human Gingival Fibroblasts Tue, 18 Feb 2014 16:28:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/784019/ Periodontal disease is accompanied by inflammation of the gingiva and destruction of periodontal tissues, leading to alveolar bone loss in severe clinical cases. The chemical mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cytokines such as interleukin- (IL-)6 and IL-8 have been known to play important roles in inflammatory responses and tissue degradation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a kampo medicine, kakkonto (TJ-1), on the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), IL-6, and IL-8 by human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Kakkonto concentration dependently suppressed LPS-induced PGE2 production but did not alter basal PGE2 levels. In contrast, kakkonto significantly increased LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. Kakkonto decreased cyclooxygenase- (COX-)1 activity to approximately 70% at 1 mg/mL but did not affect COX-2 activity. Kakkonto did not affect cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), annexin1, or LPS-induced COX-2 expression. Kakkonto suppressed LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which is known to lead to ERK activation and cPLA2 phosphorylation. These results suggest that kakkonto decreased PGE2 production by inhibition of ERK phosphorylation which leads to inhibition of cPLA2 phosphorylation and its activation. Therefore, kakkonto may be useful to improve gingival inflammation in periodontal disease. Hiroyuki Kitamura, Hiroko Urano, and Toshiaki Ara Copyright © 2014 Hiroyuki Kitamura et al. All rights reserved. Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Aloe succotrina in Rats: Possibly Mediated by Inhibition of HMG-CoA Reductase Mon, 17 Feb 2014 09:41:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/243575/ The present study was designed to investigate antihyperlipidemic activity of dried pulp of Aloe succotrina leaves in Wistar albino rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rats by feeding them high fat diet (HFD) or D-fructose (25% w/v) for 4 successive weeks. From 15th to 28th day, dried pulp (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o) and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) per se were administered 2 h prior to feeding rats with HFD or fructose. Aloe succotrina did not significantly decrease the body weight of rats. The dried pulp and atorvastatin per se significantly decreased relative liver weight but did not significantly affect relative heart weight. HFD or fructose significantly increased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, and VLDL, and decreased HDL-c; significantly increased liver MDA and decreased GSH levels. The dried pulp (200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reversed high fat diet-induced and fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and atherogenic index. Aloe succotrina significantly decreased HMG Co-A reductase activity. Antihyperlipidemic effect of the dried pulp was comparable to atorvastatin. Thus, Aloe succotrina produced significant antihyperlipidemic activity in both HFD and fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats, possibly through normalization of serum lipid profile, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity, and amelioration of oxidative stress in liver. Dinesh Dhingra, Deepak Lamba, Ramesh Kumar, Pashupati Nath, and Satyaprakash Gauttam Copyright © 2014 Dinesh Dhingra et al. All rights reserved. Ixora coccinea Enhances Cutaneous Wound Healing by Upregulating the Expression of Collagen and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Wed, 29 Jan 2014 07:36:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/751824/ Background. Ixora coccinea L. (Rubiaceae) has been documented for traditional use in hypertension, menstrual irregularities, sprain, chronic ulcer, and skin diseases. In the present study, I. coccinea was subjected to in vitro and in vivo wound healing investigation. Methods. Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and water sequential I. coccinea leaves extracts were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and fibroblast proliferation activities. The promising I. coccinea methanol extract (IxME) was screened for in vivo wound healing activity in Wistar rat using circular excision model. Wound contraction measurement, hydroxyproline quantification, and western blot for collagen type III (COL3A1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and Smad-2, -3, -4, and -7 was performed with 7-day postoperative wound granulation tissue. Gentamicin sulfate (0.01% w/w) hydrogel was used as reference standard. Results. IxME showed the potent antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, with significant fibroblast proliferation inducing activity, as compared to all other extracts. In vivo study confirmed the wound healing accelerating potential of IxME, as evidenced by faster wound contraction, higher hydroxyproline content, and improved histopathology of granulation tissue. Western blot analysis revealed that the topical application of I. coccinea methanol extract stimulates the fibroblast growth factor and Smad mediated collagen production in wound tissue. Aadesh Upadhyay, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay, Danswrang Goyary, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, and Vijay Veer Copyright © 2014 Aadesh Upadhyay et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy and Clinical Determinants of Antipsychotic Polypharmacy in Psychotic Patients Experiencing an Acute Relapse and Admitted to Hospital Stay: Results from a Cross-Sectional and a Subsequent Longitudinal Pilot Study Mon, 27 Jan 2014 09:33:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/762127/ Background. Antipsychotic polypharmacy is used in several psychiatric disorders, despite poor evidence existing to support this practice. Aim. We evaluated whether psychotic patients in acute relapse exposed to antipsychotic polypharmacy (AP + AP) showed different demographic, clinical, or psychopathological features compared to those exposed to one antipsychotic (AP) and whether AP + AP patients showed significantly higher improvement compared to AP patients after a 4-week treatment. Methods. Inpatients were subdivided into AP + AP and AP ones. In the cross-sectional step, patients were compared according to demographics, clinical variables, and scores on rating scales. In the longitudinal step, patients remained for 4 weeks under admission medications and were compared for clinical improvement. Results. AP + AP patients were more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia and mental retardation as a comorbid illness. AP + AP patients were more frequently under first-generation antipsychotics and had worse clinical presentation. After 4 weeks of treatment, both AP + AP and AP patients improved compared to the baseline. However, AP patients scored significantly less than AP + AP patients at the Clinical Global Impression Scale at the 4-week time point but not at the baseline, indicating a treatment-specific improvement. Conclusions. Antipsychotic polypharmacy may be offered to specific types of psychotic patients. However, efficacy of this strategy is limited at best. Felice Iasevoli, Elisabetta F. Buonaguro, Massimo Marconi, Emanuela Di Giovambattista, Maria Paola Rapagnani, Domenico De Berardis, Giovanni Martinotti, Monica Mazza, Raffaele Balletta, Nicola Serroni, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Andrea de Bartolomeis, and Alessandro Valchera Copyright © 2014 Felice Iasevoli et al. All rights reserved. The Useful Medicinal Properties of the Root-Bark Extract of Alstonia boonei (Apocynaceae) May Be Connected to Antioxidant Activity Mon, 27 Jan 2014 07:58:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/741478/ Folkloric use of root-bark extract of Alstonia boonei in the treatment and management of many disease conditions may be associated with free radical scavenging as part of its mechanisms of action. We therefore evaluated the ability of different solvent fractions of the methanol extract, crude precipitate from the extract, and isolated compound from the crude precipitate for scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of useful phytocompounds. Ethyl acetate fraction showed better antioxidant activity with IC50 of 54.25 μg/mL while acetone and methanol fractions have 121.79 and 141.67 μg/mL, respectively. The crude precipitate and isolated compound showed IC50 values of 364.39 and 354.94 μg/mL, respectively. The crude precipitate, fractions, and compound 1 showed antioxidant activity against DPPH radical although lower than that of ascorbic acid. Miracle Oluebubechukwu Obiagwu, Chibueze Peter Ihekwereme, Daniel Lotanna Ajaghaku, and Festus Basden Chinedu Okoye Copyright © 2014 Miracle Oluebubechukwu Obiagwu et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant Effects of Bovine Lactoferrin on Dexamethasone-Induced Hypertension in Rat Wed, 22 Jan 2014 14:52:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/943523/ Dexamethasone- (Dex-) induced hypertension is associated with enhanced oxidative stress. Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein with antihypertensive properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic administration of LF on oxidative stress and hypertension upon Dex administration. Male Wistar rats were treated by Dex (30 μg/kg/day subcutaneously) or saline for 14 days. Oral bovine LF (30, 100, 300 mg/kg) was given from day 8 to 14 in a reversal study. In a prevention study, rats received 4 days of LF treatment followed by Dex and continued during the test period. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using tail-cuff method. Thymus weight was used as a marker of glucocorticoid activity. Plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value were determined. Dexamethasone significantly increased SBP and plasma H2O2 level and decreased thymus and body weights. LF lowered and dose dependently prevented Dex-induced hypertension. LF prevented body weight loss and significantly reduced the elevated plasma H2O2 and increased FRAP values. Chronic administration of LF strongly reduced the blood pressure and production of ROS and improved antioxidant capacity in Dex-induced hypertension, suggesting the role of inhibition of oxidative stress as another mechanism of antihypertensive action of LF. Leila Safaeian and Hadi Zabolian Copyright © 2014 Leila Safaeian and Hadi Zabolian. All rights reserved. Intravesical Liposome and Antisense Treatment for Detrusor Overactivity and Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome Thu, 16 Jan 2014 11:45:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2014/601653/ Purpose. The following review focuses on the recent advancements in intravesical drug delivery, which brings added benefit to the therapy of detrusor overactivity and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). Results. Intravesical route is a preferred route of administration for restricting the action of extremely potent drugs like DMSO for patients of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and botulinum toxin for detrusor overactivity. Patients who are either refractory to oral treatment or need to mitigate the adverse effects encountered with conventional routes of administration also chose this route. Its usefulness in some cases can be limited by vehicle (carrier) toxicity or short duration of action. Efforts have been underway to overcome these limitations by developing liposome platform for intravesical delivery of biotechnological products including antisense oligonucleotides. Conclusions. Adoption of forward-thinking approaches can achieve advancements in drug delivery systems targeted to future improvement in pharmacotherapy of bladder diseases. Latest developments in the field of nanotechnology can bring this mode of therapy from second line of treatment for refractory cases to the forefront of disease management. Pradeep Tyagi, Mahendra P. Kashyap, Naoki Kawamorita, Tsuyoshi Yoshizawa, Michael Chancellor, and Naoki Yoshimura Copyright © 2014 Pradeep Tyagi et al. All rights reserved. Drug Utilization Study in Ophthalmology Outpatients at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Sun, 22 Dec 2013 18:39:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2013/768792/ In view of the advancement in drug development and availability of new ocular therapeutics in the discipline of ophthalmology, we attempted to study the drug utilization and describe the prescribing practices of ophthalmologists in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Method. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on patients attending Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology for curative complaints. Prescriptions of 600 patients treated were analyzed by the WHO prescribing indicators and additional indices. Results. Analysis showed that the average number of drugs per prescription was 1.49. Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was 2.35%. Percentage of encounters with antibiotics was 44.83%. Percentage of drugs prescribed from National Essential drug list (NEDL)/National Formulary of India (NFI) was 19.48%. Patient's knowledge of correct dosage was 93.83%. Antimicrobial agents were the most commonly prescribed drugs followed by antiallergy drugs and ocular lubricants. Fluoroquinolones accounted for 60% of the total antimicrobial drugs, of which gatifloxacin was the most frequently prescribed fluoroquinolone. Conclusion. The study indicated an awareness of polypharmacy, but showed ample scope for improvement in encouraging the ophthalmologists to prescribe by generic name and selection of essential drugs from NEDL/NFI. Pradeep R. Jadhav, Vijay V. Moghe, and Yeshwant A. Deshmukh Copyright © 2013 Pradeep R. Jadhav et al. All rights reserved. Antiapoptotic Effect of Simvastatin Ameliorates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Thu, 19 Dec 2013 17:31:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2013/815094/ Background. Myocardial ischemial reperfusion represents a clinically relevant problem associated with thrombolysis, angioplasty, and coronary bypass surgery. Injury of myocardium due to ischemial reperfusion includes cardiac contractile dysfunction, arrhythmias, and irreversible myocytes damage. These changes are considered to be the consequence of imbalance between the formation of oxidants and the availability of endogenous antioxidants in the heart. Objective. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of Simvastatin in the amelioration of myocardial I/R injury induced by ligation of coronary artery in a rat model. Materials and Methods. Adult male Swiss Albino rats were randomized into 4 equal groups. Group (1): sham group: rats underwent the same anesthetic and surgical procedures as those in the control group except ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (2): control group: rats were subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours by ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (3): control vehicle group: rats received vehicle of Simvastatin (normal saline) via IP injection and were subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours by ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (4): Simvastatin treated group: rats were pretreated with Simvastatin 1 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before ligation of LAD coronary artery. At the end of experiment (2 hr of reperfusion), blood samples were collected from the heart for the measurement of plasma level of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). After that the heart was harvested and divided into 3 parts; one part was used for measurement of apoptosis, another part was homogenized for the measurement of tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and the last part for histopathology study. Results. Compared with the sham group, levels of myocardial TNF-α and IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-1α and plasma cTnI were increased (). Histologically, all rats in control group showed significant () cardiac injury. Furthermore, all rats in control group showed significant () apoptosis. Simvastatin significantly counteracted the increase in myocardium level of TNF-α, IL-1B, IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP-1α, plasma cTnI, and apoptosis (). Histological analysis revealed that Simvastatin markedly reduced () the severity of heart injury in the rats that underwent LAD ligation procedure. Conclusions. The results of the present study reveal that Simvastatin may ameliorate myocardial I/R injury in rats via interfering with inflammatory reactions and apoptosis which were induced by I/R injury. Najah R. Hadi, Fadhil Al-amran, Maitham Yousif, and Suhaad T. Zamil Copyright © 2013 Najah R. Hadi et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Effects of Phosphoenolpyruvate, a Glycolytic Intermediate, as an Organ Preservation Agent with Glucose and N-Acetylcysteine against Organ Damage during Cold Storage of Mouse Liver and Kidney Thu, 05 Dec 2013 13:31:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2013/375825/ We evaluated the usefulness of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), a glycolytic intermediate with antioxidative and energy supplementation potentials, as an organ preservation agent. Using ex vivo mouse liver and kidney of a static cold storage model, we compared the effects of PEP against organ damage and oxidative stress during cold preservation with those of glucose or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, histological changes, and oxidative stress parameters (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and glutathione content) were determined. PEP (100 mM) significantly prevented an increase in LDH leakage, histological changes, such as tubulonecrosis and vacuolization, and changes in oxidative stress parameters during 72 h of cold preservation in mouse liver. Although glucose (100 mM) partly prevented LDH leakage and histological changes, no effects against oxidative stress were observed. By contrast, NAC inhibited oxidative stress in the liver and did not prevent LDH leakage or histological changes. PEP also significantly prevented kidney damage during cold preservation in a dose-dependent manner, and the protective effects were superior to those of glucose and NAC. We suggest that PEP, a functional carbohydrate with organ protective and antioxidative activities, may be useful as an organ preservation agent in clinical transplantation. Yoichi Ishitsuka, Yusuke Fukumoto, Yuki Kondo, Mitsuru Irikura, Daisuke Kadowaki, Yuki Narita, Sumio Hirata, Hiroshi Moriuchi, Toru Maruyama, Naotaka Hamasaki, and Tetsumi Irie Copyright © 2013 Yoichi Ishitsuka et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Chloroform and Methanol Extracts of Centella asiatica Linn Thu, 21 Nov 2013 11:37:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2013/789613/ A variety of active constituents with wide range of pharmacological actions have been reported with Centella asiatica. The present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of its leaf extracts. Dried leaves were defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with chloroform and methanol. Both chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for analgesic activity through tail clip, tail flick, tail immersion, and writhing assay tests at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg using Swiss albino mice. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory assay was performed by carrageenan induced paw edema of methanol extract at 100 and 200 mg doses in Wistar albino rat. Dextropropoxyphene and indomethacin were employed as a standard for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. Our present study demonstrated that Centella asiatica bears significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in those models. Sudipta Saha, Tanmoy Guria, Tanushree Singha, and Tapan Kumar Maity Copyright © 2013 Sudipta Saha et al. All rights reserved. The Cytology, Isozyme, HPLC Fingerprint, and Interspecific Hybridization Studies of Genus Epimedium (Berberidaceae) Tue, 19 Nov 2013 08:51:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2013/271578/ 104 samples from 27 accessions belonging to 12 species of genus Epimedium were studied on the basis of cytology observation, POD (i.e., peroxide) isozyme, high performance liquid chromatography (i.e., HPLC) fingerprint, and interspecific hybridization. The cytology observation showed karyotypes of twelve species studied; all are 2A symmetry type of Stebbins standard and similar to each other, and except for karyotype of E. leptorrhizum which is 2n = 2x = 8m (2SAT) + 4sm, the rest are 2n = 2x = 6m (2SAT) + 6sm. Chromosomes C-banding of barrenwort species varies, with 15 to 22 bands, consisting of centromeric bands, intercalary bands, terminal bands, and middle satellite bands. Results of POD isozyme showed that the zymographs vary greatly and sixteen bands were detected in the eleven species, and each species has its own characteristic bands different from the others. Studies on the HPLC fingerprint showed that the HPLC fingerprint of different species has characteristic peaks, divided into two regions (retention time < 10 min and retention time > 10 min). Results of interspecific hybridization showed that crosses of any combination among seven species studied are successful and the rates of grain set vary greatly. Based on these results, the system and phylogeny of this genus were inferred. Lin-Jiao Wang and Mao-Yin Sheng Copyright © 2013 Lin-Jiao Wang and Mao-Yin Sheng. All rights reserved. Hypotensive and Vasorelaxant Effects of Sericin-Derived Oligopeptides in Rats Thu, 07 Nov 2013 09:02:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2013/717529/ Sericin-derived oligopeptides obtained from silk cocoons were investigated for the in vivo hypotensive effect and investigated for the underlying mechanism involved in vasodilation in isolated rat thoracic aorta. In normotensive anesthetized rats, oligopeptides induced an immediate and transient hypotensive activity. In rat aortic rings, oligopeptides induced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in vessels precontracted with both KCl and phenylephrine (PE) with endothelium-intact or endothelium-denuded rings. In endothelium-intact rings, pretreatment with Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 100 µM), an inhibitor of the NO synthase (NOS) or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 1 µM), a selective inhibitor of the guanylyl cyclase enzyme, significantly reduced the relaxant effect of oligopeptides. However, indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase, had no effect on oligopeptides-induced relaxation. In addition, pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA, 5 mM) reduced the maximal relaxant effect induced by oligopeptides. By contrast, relaxation was not affected by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1 mM), glibenclamide (10 µM), or barium chloride (BaCl2, 1 mM). In depolarization Ca2+-free solution, oligopeptides inhibited calcium chloride- (CaCl2-) induced contraction in endothelium-denuded rings in a concentration-dependent manner. Nevertheless, oligopeptides attenuated transient contractions in Ca2+-free medium containing EGTA (1 mM) induced by 1 µM PE, but they were not affected by 20 mM caffeine. It is obvious that potent vasodilation effect of oligopeptides is mediated through both the endothelium and the vascular smooth muscle. Amnart Onsa-ard, Dawan Shimbhu, Jiraporn Tocharus, Manote Sutheerawattananonda, Rungusa Pantan, and Chainarong Tocharus Copyright © 2013 Amnart Onsa-ard et al. All rights reserved. An Inotropic Action Caused by Muscarinic Receptor Subtype 3 in Canine Cardiac Purkinje Fibers Wed, 23 Oct 2013 08:33:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2013/207671/ Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the inotropic mechanisms and the related muscarinic receptor subtype of acetylcholine (ACh) in canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. Materials and Methods. Isolated Purkinje fiber bundles were used for the measurement of contraction. The receptor subtype was determined using PCR and real-time PCR methods. Results. ACh evoked a biphasic response with a transient negative inotropic effect followed by a positive inotropic effect in a concentration-dependent manner. The biphasic inotropic actions of ACh were inhibited by the pretreatment with atropine. Caffeine inhibited the positive inotropic effect of ACh. ACh increased inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate content in the Purkinje fibers, which was abolished by atropine. Muscarinic subtypes 2 (M2) and 3 (M3) mRNAs were detected in the canine Purkinje fibers albeit the amount of M3 mRNA was smaller than M2 mRNA. M1 mRNA was not detected. Conclusion. These results suggest that the positive inotropic action of ACh may be mediated by the activation of IP3 receptors through the stimulation of M3 receptors in the canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. Katsuharu Tsuchida, Yumiko Mizukawa, Tetsuro Urushidani, Shigehiro Tachibana, and Yukiko Naito Copyright © 2013 Katsuharu Tsuchida et al. All rights reserved. Calotropis procera Root Extract Has the Capability to Combat Free Radical Mediated Damage Wed, 09 Oct 2013 09:12:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2013/691372/ The present study reports the antioxidant and membrane protective activities of Calotropis procera aqueous root extract using several in vitro assays along with the determination of phenolic as well as flavonoid contents. Total phenol and flavonoid contents in extract were 15.67 ± 1.52 mg propyl gallate equivalent/g and 1.62 ± 0.05 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. UV-visual spectroscopic scanning of the extract indicated the presence of glycoside-linked tannins or flavonoids. The extract exhibited appreciable reducing power signifying hydrogen donating potential. DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed substantial free radical scavenging activity (42–90%) in the extracts. Concentration dependent response was observed in the metal ion chelating activity (16–95%). Extracts also provided protection against iron induced lipid peroxidation in rat tissue (liver, brain, and kidney) homogenates. Comparatively better protective efficacy against peroxidative damage was observed in liver (71%) followed by kidney (65%) and brain (60%) tissues. Positive correlation was observed between DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of extract. Similarly strong positive correlation was observed between metal ion chelating ability and percentage lipid peroxidation inhibition in different tissues. The study demonstrated considerable protective efficacy in C. procera root aqueous extracts against free radical and metal ion mediated oxidative damage. Shashank Kumar, Ashutosh Gupta, and Abhay K. Pandey Copyright © 2013 Shashank Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Alginate-Curcumin Nanocomposite and Its Protective Role in Transgenic Drosophila Model of Parkinson’s Disease Thu, 19 Sep 2013 17:40:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2013/794582/ The genetic models in Drosophila provide a platform to understand the mechanism associated with degenerative diseases. The model for Parkinson's disease (PD) based on normal human alpha-synuclein (αS) expression was used in the present study. The aggregation of αS in brain leads to the formation of Lewy bodies and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons due to oxidative stress. Polyphenols generally have the reduced oral bioavailability, increased metabolic turnover, and lower permeability through the blood brain barrier. In the present study, the effect of synthesized alginate-curcumin nanocomposite was studied on the climbing ability of the PD model flies, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis in the brain of PD model flies. The alginate-curcumin nanocomposite at final doses of 10−5, 10−3, and 10−1 g/mL was supplemented with diet, and the flies were allowed to feed for 24 days. A significant dose-dependent delay in the loss of climbing ability and reduction in the oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain of PD model flies were observed. The results suggest that alginate-curcumin nanocomposite is potent in delaying the climbing disability of PD model flies and also reduced the oxidative stress as well as apoptosis in the brain of PD model flies. Yasir Hasan Siddique, Wasi Khan, Braj Raj Singh, and Alim H. Naqvi Copyright © 2013 Yasir Hasan Siddique et al. All rights reserved. Anticonvulsant Effect of Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. (Moraceae) Aqueous Extract in Rodents Wed, 18 Sep 2013 13:11:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2013/519208/ Antiaris toxicaria (Moraceae) was evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in rodents. Animal models used include maximal electroshock test (MEST); pentylenetetrazole-induced (PTZ) convulsions; picrotoxin-induced (PCT) convulsions; strychnine- (STR-) and 4-aminopyridine-induced convulsions. Increase in latency to seizures as well as reduction in duration and frequency of seizures indicated anticonvulsant activity. The extract was more effective in all models used except the maximal electroshock test and strychnine-induced convulsions. Antiaris toxicaria aqueous extract (200, 400, and 800 mg kg−1) significantly () shortened the duration of convulsions in PTZ- and PCT-induced seizures. Delay in the onset of convulsions in the two tests was significant (). Reduction in the frequency of seizures was also significant () in both tests. Antiaris further delayed the onset of seizures in 4-aminopyridine model while producing 75% protection against death in mice. Diazepam (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg kg−1), carbamazepine (3, 10, and 30 mg kg−1), and sodium valproate (100–400 mg kg−1) were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for various models. Flumazenil blocked the effect of the extract in the PTZ test significantly suggesting that Antiaris toxicaria may be acting by enhancing the effects of the GABAergic system. Antiaris toxicaria aqueous extract therefore possesses anticonvulsant activity. Priscilla Kolibea Mante, Donatus Wewura Adongo, Eric Woode, Kennedy Kwami Edem Kukuia, and Elvis Ofori Ameyaw Copyright © 2013 Priscilla Kolibea Mante et al. All rights reserved. Therapeutic Effect of Ficus lacor Aerial Roots of Various Fractions on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Rats Tue, 17 Sep 2013 13:13:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.pharmacology/2013/634106/ The present study was carried out to evaluate antiarthritic potential and phytochemical screening of various extracts of Ficus lacor aerial roots. The antiarthritic activity was evaluated by adjuvant-induced arthritis at the dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight and the standard drug used was indomethacin. The extracts administered in higher doses reduced the lesions to a greater extent showing a dose-dependent decrease in lesions comparable with standard drug indomethacin. The extracts of FLPE and FLET showed significant increase in body weight as compared to arthritic control group as well as an increase in liver weight, a decrease in liver weight, and an increase in spleen weight in arthritis control. The extracts of FLPE and FLET showed significant decrease in WBC count, increase in hemoglobin contents, and RBC count as compared to control group. FLEA and FLCF were not able to produce a significant effect. There was significant reduction in production of IL-1 and TNF-α level between model group and control group in serum. In conclusion, we demonstrate that, at 100 mg/kg body weight, doses of FLPE and PLET extracts were highly effective in preventing and suppressing the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Rakesh K. Sindhu and Sandeep Arora Copyright © 2013 Rakesh K. Sindhu and Sandeep Arora. All rights reserved.