- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 758072, 8 pages
The Autoimmune Model of Schizophrenia
1Faculty of Medicine, University of Otago, Box 913, Dunedin 9050, New Zealand
2Division of Commerce, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
3Kimg’s College London, University of London, London SE1 8UB, UK
Received 25 January 2012; Accepted 26 February 2012
Academic Editor: C. Bonetto
Copyright © 2012 D. D. Adams et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- R. J. Dubos, Louis Pasteur, Gallancz, London, UK, 1956.
- R. J. Godlee, Lord Lister, Macmillan, London, UK, 1917.
- R. R. A. Coombs and P. G. H. Gell, “The classification of allergic reactions underlying disease,” in Clinical Aspects of Immunology, RRA Coombs and PGH Gell, Eds., vol. 319, Davis, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1962.
- F. Himmelweit, Ed., The Collected Papers of Paul Ehrlich, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1956.
- W. Dameshek, “Autoimmunity: theoretical aspects,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 124, part 1, pp. 6–28, 1965.
- E. Witebsky, N. Rose, K. Terplan, J. R. Paine, and R. W. Egan, “Chronic thyroiditis and autoimmunization,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 164, no. 13, pp. 1439–1447, 1957.
- D. Doniach and I. M. Roitt, “Auto-immunity in Hashimoto's disease and its implications,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1293–1304, 1957.
- D. D. Adams, “The presence of an abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone in the serum of some thyrotoxic patients,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 699–712, 1958.
- D. D. Adams, “Thyroid-stimulating autoantibodies,” Vitamins and Hormones C, vol. 38, pp. 119–203, 1981.
- K. J. Johnson, S. W. Chensue, S. L. Kunkel, and P. A. Ward, “Immunologically mediated tissue injury,” in Pathology, E. Rubin and J. Faber, Eds., pp. 105–117, Lippincott, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2nd edition, 1994.
- D. D. Adams and J. G. Knight, “Principles of autoimmune disease: pathogenesis, genetics and specific immunotherapy,” Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Immunology, vol. 52, pp. 1–22, 2003.
- N. K. Jerne, “The selection theory of antibody formation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United State, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 849–853, 1955.
- F. M. Burnet, The Clonal Selection Theory of Acquired Immunity, Cambridge University Press, London, UK, 1959.
- F. M. Burnet, “Autoimmune disease,” British Medical Journal, vol. 2, pp. 645–650, 1959.
- R. J. Graves, Clinical Lectures, pp. 134–136, 1838.
- C. R. Harington, The Thyroid Gland, Oxford University Press, London, UK, 1933.
- D. D. Adams and H. D. Purves, “Abnormal responses in the assay of thyrotrophin,” Proceedings of the University Otago Medical School, vol. 34, pp. 11–12, 1956.
- D. D. Adams, “The presence of an abnormal thyroidstimulating hormone in the serum of some thyrotoxic patients,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 699–712, 1958.
- D. D. Adams, A. Knight, J. G. Knight, and P. Laing, “Graves' disease; a paradigm for autoimmunity,” in Thyroid Autoimmunity, A. Pinchera, S. H. Ingbar, J. M. McKenzie, and G. F. Fenzi, Eds., pp. 1–10, Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 1987.
- J. Knight, P. Laing, A. Knight, D. Adams, and N. Ling, “Thyroid-stimulating autoantibodies usually contain only X light chaims: evidence for the forbidden clone theory,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 62, pp. 342–347, 1986.
- A. C. Allison, A. M. Denman, and R. D. Barnes, “Cooperating and controlling functions of thymus-derived lymphocytes in relation to autoimmunity,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 7716, pp. 135–140, 1971.
- D. Nachigal, I. Zan Bar, and M. Feldman, “The role of specific suppressor T cells in immune tolerance,” Transplantation Reviews, vol. 26, pp. 87–105, 1975.
- J. G. Knight and D. D. Adams, “Failure of transferred thymus cells to suppress or prevent autoantibody production in NZB and NZBxNZW mice,” Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Immunology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 151–158, 1978.
- E. M. Shevack, “Organ-specific autoimmunity,” in Fundamental Immunology, W. E. Paul, Ed., pp. 1089–1125, Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 4th edition, 1999.
- D. D. Adams, J. G. Knight, and A. Ebringer, “Autoimmune diseases: solution of the environmental, immunological and genetic components with principles for immunotherapy and transplantation,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 525–530, 2010.
- G. K. Klintworth, “The eye,” in Pathology, E. Rubin and J. L. Farber, Eds., pp. 1456–1483, Lippincott, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2nd edition, 1988.
- D. D. Adams, “Autoimmune destruction of pericytes as the cause of diabetic retinopathy,” Journal of Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 295–298, 2008.
- D. D. Adams, “Why the histocompatibility system exists and how transplant surgeons can xenograft without rejection,” An International Journal of Medicine, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 767–769, 2011.
- D. D. Adams, “Protection from autoimune disease as the third function of the major histocompatibility gene complex,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8553, pp. 245–249, 1987.
- R. M. Zinkernagel and P. C. Doherty, “Restriction of in vitro T cell mediated cytotoxicity in lymphocytic choriomeningitis within a syngeneic or semiallogeneic system,” Nature, vol. 248, no. 5450, pp. 701–702, 1974.
- M. Bielschowsky, B. J. Helyer, and J. B. Howie, “Spontaneous anaemia in mice of the NZB/BL strain,” Proceedings of the University Otago Medical School, vol. 37, pp. 9–12, 1959.
- J. B. Howie and B. J. Helyer, “The immunology and pathology of NZB mice 1,” Advances in Immunology C, vol. 9, pp. 215–266, 1968.
- J. G. Knight and D. D. Adams, “Three genes for lupus nephritis in NZB X NZW mice,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 147, no. 6, pp. 1653–1660, 1978.
- J. G. Knight and D. D. Adams, “Genes determining autoimmune disease in New Zealand mice,” Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Immunology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 165–170, 1981.
- J. G. Knight and D. D. Adams, “The genetic basis of autoimmune disease,” Ciba Foundation Symposium, no. 90, pp. 35–56, 1982.
- D. D. Adams, “Autoimmune mechanisms,” in Autoimmune Endocrine Disease, T. F. Davies, Ed., pp. 1–39, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1983.
- J. G. Knight, “Dopamine-receptor-stimulating autoantibodies: a possible cause of schizophrenia,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8307, pp. 1073–1076, 1982.
- S. S. Kety, “Mental illness in the biological and adoptive relatives of schizophrenic adoptees: findings relevant to genetic and environmental factors in etiology,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 720–727, 1983.
- G. W. Mellsop, L. Koadlow, J. Syme, and S. Whittingham, “Absence of rheumatoid arthritis in schizophrenia,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 247–252, 1974.
- P. J. Harrison and M. J. Owen, “Genes for schizophrenia? Recent findings and their pathophysiological implications,” The Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9355, pp. 417–419, 2003.
- V. A. McKusick, Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md, USA, 5th edition, 1978.
- M. h. Kaplan and M. Meyeserian, “An immunological cross-reaction between group A streptococcal cells and human heart tissue,” The Lancet, vol. 279, no. 7232, pp. 706–710, 1962.
- T. Rashid and A. Ebringer, “Rheumatoid arthritis is linked to Proteus—the evidence,” Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1036–1043, 2007.
- A. Ebringer, T. Rashid, T. Wilson, T. Ptaszynska, and M. Fielder, “Ankylosing spondylitis, HLA-b27, and Klebsiella—an overview: proposal for early diagnosis and treatment,” in Current Rheumatology Reviews, vol. 2, pp. 55–68, 2006.
- J. G. Knight, A. Knight, and C. B. Pert, “Is schizophrenia a virally-triggered anti-receptor autoimmune disease?” in Biological Perspectives of Schizophrenia, H. Helmchen and FA Henn, Eds., pp. 107–127, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1987.
- P. Laing, J. G. Knight, J. M. Hill et al., “Influenza viruses induce autoantibodies to a brain-specific 37-kDa protein in rabbit,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 1998–2002, 1989.
- A. Ebringer, Rheumatoid arthritis and Proteus, Springer, London, UK, 2011.
- C. Wilson, A. Ebringer, K. Ahmadi, et al., “Shared amino acid sequences between major histocompatibility complex class II glycoproteins, type XI collagen and Proteus mirabilis in rheumatoid arthritis,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 216–220, 1995.
- A. Ebringer, T. Rashid, C. Wilson, T. Ptazynska, and M. Fielder, “Ankylosing spondylitis, HLA-B27 and Klebsiella pneumoniae—an overview proposed for early diagnosis and treatment,” Current Rheumatology Reviews, vol. 2, pp. 55–68, 2006.
- D. Farge, J. Passweg, J. M. Van Laar et al., “Autologous stem cell transplantation in the treatment of systemic sclerosis: report from the EBMT/EULAR registry,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 974–981, 2004.
- H. Englert, C. Katelaris, N. McGill, L. Schrieber, and J. Moore, ““Grape-sultana” sign represents a favourable response to aggressive treatment of early diffuse systemic scleroderma,” Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 436–437, 2005.
- E. E. Jarrett and H. R. Miller, “Production and activities of IgE in helminth infection,” Progress in Allergy, vol. 31, pp. 178–233, 1982.
- R. G. Bell, “IgE, allergies and helminth parasites: a new perspective on an old conundrum,” Immunology and Cell Biology, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 337–345, 1996.
- D. D. Adams, “Systemic lupus erythaematosus: a simple concept of the pathogenesis and its genetic basis,” in Immunogenetics in Rheumatology, R. L. Dawkins, F. T. Christiansen, and P. J. Zilko, Eds., pp. 242–243, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1982.
- J. Lindstrom, D. Shelton, and Y. Fujii, “Myasthenia gravis,” Advances in Immunology, vol. 42, pp. 233–284, 1988.
- A. Ebringer, T. Rashid, and C. Wilson, “Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 216–223, 2010.
- R. S. Sherwin, “Diabetes mellitus,” in Cecil Textbook of Medicine, L. Goldman and J. C. Bennett, Eds., pp. 1263–1285, Saunfers, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 21 edition, 2000.
- D. E. Sutherland, F. C. Goetz, and R. K. Sibley, “Recurrence of disease in pancreas transplants,” Diabetes, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 85–87, 1989.
- A. Ben-Nun, H. Wekerle, and I. Cohen, “The rapid isolation of clonable antigen-specific T lymphocyte lines capable of mediating autoimmune encephalomyelitis,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 195–199, 1981.