Table 1: Levers for change in the macro- and microenvironments to influence obesity in food insecure populations.

Environment type
PhysicalEconomicPoliticalSociocultural

Macroenvironmental settingsModify agricultural, housing, transportation, and social policies that influence food production and distribution.Offer monetary incentives for healthy food options (e.g., subsidies) and disincentives for unhealthy options (e.g., taxes).Promote agricultural, social, and food security and nutrition policy informed by obesity prevention science.Food marketing and advertising environment in economically disadvantaged areas to promote health and prevent obesity.

Microenvironmental settingFood retailers and food service outlets determine local healthy food options. Institutional financial support for health promotion and nutrition programs; financial support for support local food production.Institutional rules and policies influencing availability of healthy food options. Institutional climate around nutritious eating and healthy body weight maintenance.