Table 1: Reports of samples, etiology and care settings for children dependent on long-term MV.

Country Study timeframe Number and ages of children studiedEtiology/indication for mechanical ventilation*Type of mechanical ventilationCare setting**

Turkey-Istanbul [7]2001–2006n = 34
4 months to 17 years
Neuromuscular 18%
Central dysregulation 21% Airway/lung dysfunction 62%
Invasive 33%
Non-invasive 67%
Home 100%
Italy [9]2007n = 362
<17 years of age
Neuromuscular 49%
Central dysregulation 25%
Airway/lung dysfunction 18%
Invasive 41%
Non-invasive 59%
Home 100%
Japan [64]1996n = 434
<20 years of age
Neuromuscular 28%
Central dysregulation 23%
Airway/lung dysfunction 5%
Other/unknown 45%
UnknownHospital 86%
Home 14%
Netherlands [65]1979–2009n = 197
<18 years of age
Neuromuscular 66%
Central dysregulation 17%
Airway/lung dysfunction 6%
Other 11%
Invasive 51%
Non-invasive 49%
Home 100%
Switzerland [8]2001n = 32
<16 years of age
Neuromuscular 41%
Central dysregulation 47%
Airway/lung dysfunction 9%
Other 3%
Invasive 31%
Non-invasive 69%
Home 94%
Hospital 6%
Taiwan [66]1998–2006n = 139
3 months to 18 years of age
Neuromuscular/Neurologic 72%
Airway/lung dysfunction 14%
Other 14%
Invasive 97%
Non-Invasive 3%
Hospital 79%
Home 21%
Death
United Kingdom [67]2008n = 933
<17 years of age
Neuromuscular 43%
Central dysregulation 18%
Airway/lung dysfunction 37%
Invasive 23%
Non-invasive 77%
Home 91%
Hospital 7%
Unknown 2%
United Kingdom [68]1999n = 141  
<16 years of age
Neuromuscular 44%
Central dysregulation 24%
Airway/lung dysfunction 11%
Other 18%
Invasive 48%
Non-invasive 52%
Home 68%
Hospital 32%
United States-Massachusetts [3]2005n = 197  
<22 years of age
Neuromuscular/neurologic 59%
Airway/lung dysfunction 28%
Other/unknown 13%
Invasive 49%
Non-invasive 51%
Home care 73%
Hospital 6%
Unknown 16%
United States-Utah [6]2004   
<16 years of age
Neuromuscular 13%
Central dysregulation 45%
Airway/lung dysfunction 41%
Invasive 100%Home 100%
New Zealand [69]1991–2004 Neuromuscular 11%
Central dysregulation 4%
Airway/lung dysfunction 39%
Other 48%
Invasive 3%
Non-invasive 97%
Home 100%

*Etiologies may be combined as presented in study results.
**Home includes “community living” and “long-term care”.