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ISRN Rheumatology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 901416, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/901416
Review Article

Recommendations for Diagnosis and Management of Osteoporosis in COPD Men

1Department of Internal Medicine, Naval Hospital of Crete, Chania, 73 200 Crete, Greece
2Department of Internal Medicine, Patras University Hospital, 26500 Rion-Patras, Greece

Received 28 April 2011; Accepted 21 June 2011

Academic Editor: L. Gennari

Copyright © 2011 Elias E. Mazokopakis and Ioannis K. Starakis. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk for osteoporosis and fractures because of lifestyle factors, systemic effects of the disease, side effects of treatment, and comorbidities. The initial evaluation of COPD men for osteoporosis must include a detailed medical history and physical examination, assessment of COPD severity, and additional tests, as suggested by results of clinical evaluation. Osteoporosis is diagnosed on the basis of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement with DEXA of the lumbar spine and hip, but fracture risk assessments tools, as FRAX, could be used as useful supplements to BMD assessments for therapeutics interventions. The prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in COPD involves nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic measures, as lifestyle measures and nutritional recommendations, management of COPD treatment (based on the use of limited corticosteroids doses), and drug therapy (bisphosphonates, teriparatide). In this paper, the current recommendations for diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in COPD men, based on recent medical bibliography, are presented and discussed.