Table 1: Factors independent of bone mineral density that increase fracture risk in men [2].

(A) Primary factors
(i) Previous fragility fracture after 40 years of age, especially vertebral compression fractures*
(ii) Systemic glucocorticoid therapy+ of ≥3 months’ duration
(iii) Advancing age, especially past 65 yr

(B) Other key factors
(i) Presence of disease or a condition associated with bone loss
(ii) Family history of osteoporotic fracture
(iii) High alcohol intake: >2 units (i.e., >18 g) of alcohol daily
(iv) Hypogonadism, primary or secondary
(v) Low BMI (<20 kg/m2) associated with bone loss
(vi) Smoking, current or past
(vii) Use of LHRH analogs (antiandrogen therapy)

LHRH: luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone, BMI: body mass index.
*Height loss of ≥6 cm or kyphosis may be a clinical sign of a vertebral compression fracture;
+The equivalent of ≥7.5 mg/d of prednisone.