Table 10: Root mean square errors (g/g) associated with retrieval of soil moisture (gravimetric) by physical modeling of PALS L band observations considering the retrieved soil moisture is representative of the in situ 0–6 cm layer soil moisture [41].

Calibration daysNotevwc < 11 < vwc < 2.52.5 < vwc < 3.53.5 < vwc < 4.54.5 < vwc

178, 1891 dry, 1 wet0.03750.03430.02870.03270.0439
176, 186, 1891 dry, 2 wet0.04040.03100.03650.05040.0436
178, 188, 1891 dry, 2 wet0.04750.03380.03090.02710.0398
176, 178, 1892 dry, 1 wet0.03980.02970.02300.05190.0518
176, 178, 1872 dry, 1 wet0.04420.00420.02520.06610.0465
188, 1892 wet0.03260.03410.04030.03340.0283
176, 1782 dry0.04550.00330.02210.07370.0472
176, 188, 1891 dry, 2 wet0.03330.02860.02990.03910.0454