ISRN Tissue Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Hyaluronan-Based Three-Dimensional Microenvironment Potently Induces Cardiovascular Progenitor Cell Populations Tue, 03 Sep 2013 08:22:51 +0000 The relationship between stem cell niches in vivo and their surrounding microenvironment is still relatively unknown. Recent advances have indicated that extrinsic factors within the cardiovascular progenitor cell niche influence maintenance of a multipotent state as well as drive cell-fate decisions. We have previously shown the direct effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and have now investigated the effects of dimension on the induction of a cardiovascular progenitor cell (CPC) population. We have shown here that the three-dimensionality of a hyaluronan-based hydrogel greatly induces a CPC population, as marked by Flk-1. We have compared the effects of a 3D microenvironment to those of conventional 2D cell culture practices and have found that the 3D microenvironment potently induces a progenitor cell state. Jessica M. Gluck, Jennifer Chyu, Connor Delman, Sepideh Heydarkhan-Hagvall, W. Robb MacLellan, and Richard J. Shemin Copyright © 2013 Jessica M. Gluck et al. All rights reserved. Cryopreservation-Induced Stress on Long-Term Preserved Articular Cartilage Sat, 24 Aug 2013 13:47:20 +0000 Tissue engineered cartilage constructs have potential clinical applications in human healthcare. Their effective utilization is, however, hampered by the lack of an optimal cryopreservation procedure that ensures their availability as and when required at the patient’s bedside. Cryopreservation-induced stress represents a major barrier towards the cryopreservation of such tissue constructs, and they remain a scientific challenge despite the significant progress in the long-term storage and banking of isolated chondrocytes and thin cartilage tissue slices. These stresses are caused by intra- and extracellular ice crystallization, cryoprotectant (CPA) toxicity, suboptimal rates of cooling and warming, osmotic imbalance, and altered intracellular pH that might cause cellular death and/or a disruption of extracellular matrix (ECM). This paper reviews the cryopreservation-induced stresses on tissue engineered cartilages and discusses how they influence the integrity of the tissue during its long-term preservation. We have also reported how various antioxidants, vitamins, and plant extracts have been used to inhibit and overcome the stress during cryopreservation and provide promising results. Based on the reviewed information, the paper has also proposed some novel ways which might help in increasing the postthawing cell viability of cryopreserved cartilage. Rajdeep Kaur, K. Pramanik, and S. K. Sarangi Copyright © 2013 Rajdeep Kaur et al. All rights reserved. Nanocomposites Based on PLLA and Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Support the Myogenic Differentiation of Murine Myoblast Cell Line Mon, 01 Jul 2013 13:06:54 +0000 We explored the effect of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) containing various percentages (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 3 wt.%) of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 murine myoblast progenitor cells. We showed that all PLLA/MWCNTs nanocomposite materials support the myotubes formation more efficiently than neat PLLA as indicated by the high expression of the most significant myogenic markers: MyoD, Myosin Heavy Chain, dimension of myofibres, and fusion myogenic index. Interestingly, we note that both MyoD and myogenic fusion index levels were in the order 0.1 MWCNTs = 0.5 MWCNTs > 1 MWCNTs > 3 MWCNTs > neat PLLA, suggesting that the amount of MWCNTs influenced the cell differentiation. Simona Montesano, Erlantz Lizundia, Francesco D'Angelo, Elena Fortunati, Samantha Mattioli, Francesco Morena, Ilaria Bicchi, Fabio Naro, Maurilio Sampaolesi, Josè Ramon Sarasua, Josè Maria Kenny, Aldo Orlacchio, Ilaria Armentano, and Sabata Martino Copyright © 2013 Simona Montesano et al. All rights reserved. The Mechanical Bidomain Model: A Review Tue, 11 Dec 2012 14:57:31 +0000 The mechanical bidomain model is a new mathematical description of the elastic behavior of cardiac tissue. Its primary advantage over previous models is that it accounts for forces acting across the cell membrane arising from differences in the displacement of the intracellular and extracellular spaces. In this paper, I describe the development of the mechanical bidomain model. I emphasize new predictions of the model, such as the existence of boundary layers at the tissue surface where the membrane forces are large, and pressure differences between the intracellular and extracellular spaces. Although the theoretical analysis is quite mathematical, I highlight the types of experiments that could be used to test the model predictions. Finally, I present open questions about the mechanical bidomain model that may be productive future directions for research. Bradley J. Roth Copyright © 2013 Bradley J. Roth. All rights reserved.