About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Urology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 456821, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/456821
Research Article

Why I Cannot Find the Prostate? Behind the Subjectivity of Rectal Exam

Department of Urology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 3235, Jerusalem 91031, Israel

Received 5 November 2011; Accepted 4 December 2011

Academic Editors: T. J. Maatman, F. Staerman, and A. C. Thorpe

Copyright © 2012 Dmitry Koulikov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. G. Roehrborn, C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes et al., “Correlation between prostate size estimated by digital rectal examination and measured by transrectal ultrasound,” Urology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 548–557, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Loeb, M. Han, K. A. Roehl, J. A. V. Antenor, and W. J. Catalona, “Accuracy of prostate weight estimation by digital rectal examination versus transrectal ultrasonography,” Journal of Urology, vol. 173, no. 1, pp. 63–65, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. J. Catalona, J. P. Richie, F. R. Ahmann et al., “Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men,” Journal of Urology, vol. 151, no. 5, pp. 1283–1290, 1994. View at Scopus
  4. F. H. Schroder, P. van der Maas, P. Beemsterboer, et al., “Evaluation of the digital rectal examination as a screening test for prostate cancer. Rotterdam section of the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 90, no. 23, pp. 1817–1823, 1998.
  5. A. N. Vis, R. F. Hoedemaeker, M. Roobol, T. H. Van Der Kwast, and F. H. Schrder, “Tumor characteristics in screening for prostate cancer with and without rectal examination as an initial screening test at low PSA (0.0–3.9 ng/ml),” Prostate, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 252–261, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. A. N. Vis, R. Kranse, M. Roobol, T. H. Van Der Kwast, and F. H. Schröder, “Serendipity in detecting disease in low prostate-specific antigen ranges,” BJU International, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 384–389, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. B. Marshall, “How adequate is digital rectal exam for prostate cancer screening at colonoscopy? Can adequacy be improved?” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 719–722, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. R. J. Babaian, H. A. Fritsche, and R. B. Evans, “Prostate-specific antigen and prostate gland volume: correlation and clinical application,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 135–137, 1990. View at Scopus
  9. C. G. Roehrborn, H. K. W. Chinn, and P. F. Fulgham, “The role of transabdominal ultrasound in the preoperative evaluation of patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy,” Journal of Urology, vol. 135, no. 6, pp. 1190–1193, 1986. View at Scopus
  10. C. G. Roehrborn, J. McConnell, J. Bonilla, et al., “Serum prostate specific antigen is a strong predictor of future prostate growth in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. PROSCAR long-term efficacy and safety study,” Journal of Urology, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2000.
  11. G. L. Andriole, C. D. Berg, E. D. Crawford et al., “Mortality results from a randomized prostate-cancer screening trial,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 13, pp. 1310–1319, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. F. H. Schröder, J. Hugosson, M. J. Roobol et al., “Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized european study,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 13, pp. 1320–1328, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. A. J. Stephenson, P. T. Scardino, J. A. Eastham et al., “Preoperative nomogram predicting the 10-year probability of prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 98, no. 10, pp. 715–717, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. P. L. Ross, C. Gerigk, M. Gonen et al., “Comparisons of nomograms and urologists' predictions in prostate cancer,” Seminars in Urologic Oncology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 82–88, 2002. View at Scopus
  15. A. W. Partin, M. W. Kattan, E. N. P. Subong et al., “Combination of prostate-specific antigen, clinical stage, and Gleason score to predict pathological stage of localized prostate cancer: a multi- institutional update,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 277, no. 18, pp. 1445–1451, 1997. View at Scopus
  16. C. Gosselaar, M. J. Roobol, S. Roemeling, and F. H. Schröder, “The role of the digital rectal examination in subsequent screening visits in the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer (ERSPC), Rotterdam,” European Urology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 581–588, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. C. Gosselaar, M. J. Roobol, R. C. N. van den Bergh, T. Wolters, and F. H. Schröder, “Digital rectal examination and the diagnosis of prostate cancer-a study based on 8 years and three screenings within the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer (ERSPC), Rotterdam,” European Urology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 139–147, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. C. J. Fowler, “Investigation of the neurogenic bladder,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 6–13, 1996. View at Scopus