About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Urology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 109846, 42 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/109846
Review Article

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, 413 E. Ohio Street, Marquette, MI 49855, USA

Received 12 December 2012; Accepted 22 January 2013

Academic Editors: A. M. El-Assmy and A. Natali

Copyright © 2013 Robert S. Van Howe. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Hutchinson, “On the influence of circumcision in preventing syphilis,” The Medical Times and Gazette, vol. 32, pp. 542–543, 1855.
  2. T. E. Wiswell, “Circumcision circumspection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 336, no. 17, pp. 1244–1245, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Moses, R. C. Bailey, and A. R. Ronald, “Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 368–373, 1998. View at Scopus
  4. E. J. Schoen, T. E. Wiswell, and S. Moses, “New policy on circumcision—cause for concern,” Pediatrics, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 620–623, 2000. View at Scopus
  5. A. A. R. Tobian, R. H. Gray, and T. C. Quinn, “Male circumcision for the prevention of acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted infections: the case for neonatal circumcision,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 164, no. 1, pp. 78–84, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. A. R. Tobian and R. H. Gray, “The medical benefits of male circumcision,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 306, pp. 1479–1480, 2011.
  7. B. J. Morris, “Why circumcision is a biomedical imperative for the 21st century,” BioEssays, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1147–1158, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. J. Morris, R. H. Gray, X. Castellsague et al., “The strong protective effect of circumcision against cancer of the penis,” Advances in Urology, vol. 2011, Article ID 812368, 21 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. B. J. Morris, A. D. Wodak, A. Mindel et al., “The 2010 Royal Australasian College of Physicians' policy statement ‘Circumcision of infant males’ is not evidence based,” Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 42, pp. 822–828, 2012.
  10. S. Kacker, K. C. Frick, C. A. Gaydos, and A. A. R. Tobian, “Costs and effectiveness of neonatal male circumcision,” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol. 166, pp. 910–918, 2012.
  11. N. Zetola and J. D. Klausner, “Male circumcision reduces human papillomavirus incidence and prevalence: clarifying the evidence,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 39, pp. 114–115, 2012.
  12. AAP 2012 Task Force on Circumcision, “Male circumcision,” Pediatrics, vol. 130, pp. e756–e785, 2012.
  13. American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision, “Circumcision policy statement,” Pediatrics, vol. 103, pp. 686–693, 1999.
  14. R. S. Van Howe, “Does circumcision influence sexually transmitted diseases?: a literature review,” BJU International, Supplement, vol. 83, supplement 1, pp. 52–62, 1999. View at Scopus
  15. H. A. Weiss, S. L. Thomas, S. K. Munabi, and R. J. Hayes, “Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 101–110, 2006. View at Scopus
  16. R. S. Van Howe, “Human papillomavirus and circumcision: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Infection, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 490–496, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. S. Van Howe, “Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted urethritis and circumcision: a meta-analysis,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 799–809, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. J. Rehmeyer, “Male circumcision and human papillomavirus studies reviewed by infection stage and virus type,” The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, vol. 111, supplement 3, pp. S11–S18, 2011. View at Scopus
  19. C. Chelimo, T. A. Wouldes, L. D. Cameron, and J. M. Elmwood, “Risk factors for prevention of human papillomaviruses (HPV), genital warts and cervical cancer,” Journal of Infection, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 207–217, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. G. Albero, X. Castellsagué, A. R. Giuliano, and F. X. Bosch, “Male circumcision and genital human papillomavirus: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 39, pp. 104–113, 2012.
  21. N. Larke, “Male circumcision, HIV and sexually transmitted infections: a review,” British Journal of Nursing, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 629–634, 2010. View at Scopus
  22. D. F. Stroup, J. A. Berlin, S. C. Morton et al., “Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 283, no. 15, pp. 2008–2012, 2000. View at Scopus
  23. R. A. Wilson, “Circumcision and venereal disease,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 56, pp. 54–56, 1947.
  24. E. Mallon, D. Hawkins, M. Dinneen et al., “Circumcision and genital dermatoses,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 350–354, 2000. View at Scopus
  25. E. A. Hand, “Circumcision and venereal disease,” Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 341–346, 1949. View at Scopus
  26. M. R. Storms, “Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 3, article 307, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. S. Van Howe and M. R. Storms, “Circumcision to prevent HPV infection,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 746–747, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. S. Van Howe, “Sampling bias explains association between human papillomavirus and circumcision,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 200, no. 5, article 832, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. D. Oriel, “Natural history of genital warts,” British Journal of Venereal Diseases, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 1971. View at Scopus
  30. L. S. Cook, L. A. Koutsky, and K. K. Holmes, “Circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 197–201, 1994. View at Scopus
  31. B. A. Weaver, Q. Feng, K. K. Holmes et al., “Evaluation of genital sites and sampling techniques for detection of human papillomavirus DNA in men,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 189, no. 4, pp. 677–685, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. VanBuskirk, R. L. Winer, J. P. Hughes et al., “Circumcision and the acquisition of human papillomavirus infection in young men,” Sexual Transmitted Disease, vol. 38, pp. 1074–1081, 2011.
  33. O. Aynaud, M. Ionesco, and R. Barrasso, “Penile intraepithelial neoplasia. Specific clinical features correlate with histologic and virologic findings,” Cancer, vol. 74, pp. 1762–1767, 1994.
  34. O. Aynaud, D. Piron, G. Bijaoui, and J. M. Casanova, “Developmental factors of urethral human papillomavirus lesions: correlation with circumcision,” BJU International, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 57–60, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. Y. Hernandez, Y. B. Shvetsov, M. T. Goodman et al., “Reduced clearance of penile human papillomavirus infection in uncircumcised men,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 201, no. 9, pp. 1340–1343, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Bwayo, F. Plummer, M. Omari et al., “Human immunodeficiency virus infection in long-distance truck drivers in east Africa,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 154, no. 12, pp. 1391–1396, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. B. Petitti, Meta-Analysis, Decision Analysis, and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Methods for Quantitative Synthesis in Medicine, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2000.
  38. H. C. van Houwelingen, L. R. Arends, and T. Stijnen, “Advanced methods in meta-analysis: multivariate approach and meta-regression,” Statistics in Medicine, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 589–624, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Egger, G. D. Smith, M. Schneider, and C. Minder, “Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test,” British Medical Journal, vol. 315, no. 7109, pp. 629–634, 1997. View at Scopus
  40. P. Macaskill, S. D. Walter, and L. Irwig, “A comparison of methods to detect publication bias in meta-analysis,” Statistics in Medicine, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 641–654, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. B. Begg and M. Mazumdar, “Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias,” Biometrics, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1088–1101, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Duvall and R. Tweedie, “A non-parametric “trim and fill” method for assessing publication bias in meta-analysis,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol. 95, pp. 89–98, 2000.
  43. S. Duval and R. Tweedie, “Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis,” Biometrics, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 455–463, 2000. View at Scopus
  44. R. H. Gray, N. Kiwanuka, T. C. Quinn et al., “Male circumcision and HIV acquisition and transmission: cohort studies in Rakai, Uganda,” AIDS, vol. 14, no. 15, pp. 2371–2381, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. E. Wilson, P. Gravitt, A. A. R. Tobian et al., “Male circumcision reduces penile high-risk human papillomavirus viral load in a randomised clinical trial in Rakai, Uganda,” Sexually Transmitted Infections. In press.
  46. N. Mugo, S. S. Dadabhai, R. Bunnell et al., “Prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, human immunodeficiency virus/herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection, and associated risk factors in a national, population-based survey in Kenya,” Sexual Transmitted Disease, vol. 38, pp. 1059–1066, 2011.
  47. C. Tarnaud, P. Lissouba, E. Cutler, A. Puren, D. Taljaard, and B. Auvert, “Association of low-risk human papillomavirus infection with male circumcision in young men: results from a longitudinal study conducted in orange farm (South Africa),” Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 2011, Article ID 567408, 7 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. B. Auvert, P. Lissouba, E. Cutler, K. Zarca, A. Puren, and D. Taljaard, “Association of oncogenic and nononcogenic human papillomavirus with HIV incidence,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 111–116, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Sobngwi-Tambekou, D. Taljaard, P. Lissouba et al., “Effect of HSV-2 serostatus on acquisition of HIV by young men: results of a longitudinal study in orange farm, South Africa,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 199, no. 7, pp. 958–964, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. J. Wawer, A. A. R. Tobian, X. Kong et al., “Effect of circumcision of HIV-negative men on transmission of human papillomavirus to HIV-negative women: a randomised trial in Rakai, Uganda,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9761, pp. 209–218, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. N. P. Dickson, T. van Roode, P. Herbison, and C. Paul, “Circumcision and risk of sexually transmitted infections in a birth cohort,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 152, no. 3, pp. 383–387, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Gebremedhin, “Assessment of the protective effect of male circumcision from HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases: evidence from 18 demographic and health surveys in sub-Saharan Africa,” East African Journal of Public Health, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 295–299, 2010.
  53. R. H. Gray, D. Serwadda, A. A. Tobian et al., “Effects of genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 on the efficacy of male circumcision for HIV prevention: analyses from the Rakai trials,” PLOS Medicine, vol. 6, no. 11, Article ID e1000187, 2009.
  54. S. D. Mehta, I. Maclean, J. O. Ndinya-Achola et al., “Emergence of quinolone resistance and cephalosporin MIC creep in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from a cohort of young men in Kisumu, Kenya, 2002 to 2009,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 3882–3888, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. A. Tobian, G. Kigozi, P. E. Gravitt et al., “Human papillomavirus incidence and clearance among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men in Rakai, Uganda,” AIDS, vol. 26, pp. 1555–1565, 2012.
  56. A. L. Wolbarst, “Circumcision in infancy: a prophylactic and sanitary measure,” American Medicine, vol. 32, pp. 23–29, 1926.
  57. V. E. Lloyd and N. L. Lloyd, “Circumcision and syphilis,” British Medical Journal, vol. 1, pp. 144–146, 1934.
  58. R. Schrek and H. Lenowitz, “Etiologic factors in carcinoma of penis,” Cancer Research, vol. 7, pp. 180–187, 1947.
  59. M. F. Barile, J. M. Blumberg, C. W. Kraul, and R. Yaguchi, “Penile lesions among U.S. Armed Forces personnel in Japan,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 86, pp. 273–281, 1962.
  60. E. E. Telzak, M. A. Chiasson, P. J. Bevier, R. L. Stoneburner, K. G. Castro, and H. W. Jaffe, “HIV-1 seroconversion in patients with and without genital ulcer disease: a prospective study,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 119, no. 12, pp. 1181–1186, 1993. View at Scopus
  61. A. Buvé, H. A. Weiss, M. Laga et al., “The epidemiology of gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection and syphilis in four African cities,” AIDS, vol. 15, supplement 4, pp. S79–S88, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. L. Gottlieb, J. M. Douglas Jr., M. Foster et al., “Incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in 5 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and the effect of HIV/STD risk-reduction counseling,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 190, no. 6, pp. 1059–1067, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. Obasi, F. Mosha, M. Quigley et al., “Antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 as a marker of sexual risk behavior in rural Tanzania,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 179, no. 1, pp. 16–24, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. B. Suligoi, O. Tchamgmena, L. Sarmati et al., “Prevalence and risk factors for herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among adolescents and adults in northern Cameroon,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 690–693, 2001. View at Scopus
  65. H. A. Weiss, A. Buvé, N. J. Robinson et al., “The epidemiology of HSV-2 infection and its association with HIV infection in four urban African populations,” AIDS, vol. 15, supplement 4, pp. S97–S108, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. H. F. Tseng, H. Morgenstern, T. Mack, and R. K. Peters, “Risk factors for penile cancer: results of a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles County (United States),” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 267–277, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. K. van den Eeden, L. A. Habel, K. J. Sherman, B. Mcknight, A. Stergachis, and J. R. Daling, “Risk factors for incident and recurrent condylomata acuminata among men a population-based study,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 278–284, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. G. Thomas, L. N. Bakhireva, S. K. Brodline, and R. A. Shaffer, “Prevalence of circumcision and its association with HIV and sexually transmitted infections in a male US Navy population,” Tech. Rep. 04-10, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2004.
  69. G. Hart, “Venereal disease in a war environment: incidence and management,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 1, no. 26, pp. 808–810, 1975. View at Scopus
  70. J. Rakwar, L. Lavreys, M. L. Thompson et al., “Cofactors for the acquisition of HIV-1 among heterosexual men: prospective cohort study of trucking company workers in Kenya,” AIDS, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 607–614, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. T. H. Dinh, M. Sternberg, E. F. Dunne, and L. E. Markowitz, “Genital warts among 18- to 59-year-olds in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination survey, 1999–2004,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 357–360, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. Institut de Statistiques et d’Études Économiques du Burundi (ISTEEBU), Ministère de la Santé Publiqu et de la Lutte contra le Sida (MSPLS0), and ICF International, Enquête Démographique et de Santé Burundi 2010, ISTEEBU, MSPLS, ICF Internataional, Bujumbura, Burundi, 2012.
  73. Ministry of Health, ICF International, Centers for Disease Control and Preventions, and U. S. Agency for International Development WHO Uganda, Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda, 2012.
  74. V. P. Jerath and V. K. Mahajan, “Does circumcision influence recurrences in herpes genitalis?” Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 575–578, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. R. Heffron, A. Chao, A. Mwinga et al., “High prevalent and incident HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus 2 infection among male migrant and non-migrant sugar farm workers in Zambia,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 283–288, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. E. Lazczno-Ponce, R. Herrero, N. Muñoz et al., “High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Mexican males: comparative study of penile-urethral swabs and urine samples,” Sexual Transmitted Disease, vol. 28, pp. 277–280, 2001.
  77. D. M. Backes, M. C. G. Bleeker, Meijer CJLM et al., “Male circumcision is associated with a lower prevalence of human papillomavirus-associated penile lesions among Kenyan men,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 130, pp. 1888–1897, 2012.
  78. R. R. Hooper, G. H. Reynolds, O. G. Jones et al., “Cohort study of venereal disease, I: the risk of gonorrhea transmission from infected women to men,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 108, pp. 136–144, 1978.
  79. M. Urassa, J. Todd, J. T. Boerma, R. Hayes, and R. Isingo, “Male circumcision and susceptibility to HIV infection among men in Tanzania,” AIDS, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 73–80, 1997. View at Scopus
  80. S. M. Nicolau, C. G. Camargo, J. N. Stávale et al., “Human papillomavirus DNA detection in male sexual partners of women with genital human papillomavirus infection,” Urology, vol. 65, pp. 251–255, 2005.
  81. A. R. Giuliano, J. H. Lee, W. Fulp et al., “Incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus infection in men (HIM): a cohort study,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9769, pp. 932–940, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. A. R. Tobian, D. Serwadda, T. C. Quinn et al., “Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 13, pp. 1298–1309, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. R. H. Gray, D. Serwadda, X. Kong et al., “Male circumcision decreases acquisition and increases clearance of high-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-negative men: a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 201, pp. 1455–1462, 2010.
  84. B. Lu, Y. Wu, C. M. Nielson et al., “Factors associated with acquisition and clearance of human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of US men: a prospective study,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 199, no. 3, pp. 362–371, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. T. Langeni, “Male circumcision and sexually transmitted infections in Botswana,” Journal of Biosocial Science, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 75–88, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. S. Vaccarella, E. Lazcano-Ponce, J. A. Castro-Garduño et al., “Prevalence and determinants of human papillomavirus infection in men attending vasectomy clinics in Mexico,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 119, pp. 1935–1939, 2006.
  87. L. Warner, K. G. Ghanem, D. R. Newman, M. Macaluso, P. S. Sullivan, and E. J. Erbelding, “Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection among heterosexual African American men attending Baltimore sexually transmitted disease clinics,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 199, no. 1, pp. 59–65, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. Z. Mwandi, R. Bunnell, P. Cherutich et al., “Male circumcision programmes in Kenya: lessons from the Kenya AIDS indicator survey 2007,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 90, pp. 642–651, 2012.
  89. E. O. Laumann, C. M. Masi, and E. W. Zuckerman, “Circumcision in the United States: prevalence, prophylactic effects, and sexual practice,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 277, no. 13, pp. 1052–1057, 1997. View at Scopus
  90. J. R. Taylor, A. P. Lockwooo, and A. J. Taylor, “The prepuce: specialized mucosa of the penis and its loss to circumcision,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 291–295, 1996. View at Scopus
  91. C. J. Cold and J. R. Taylor, “The prepuce,” BJU International, vol. 83, supplement 1, pp. 34–44, 1999. View at Scopus
  92. B. Gesundheit, G. Grisaru-Soen, D. Greenberg et al., “Neonatal genital herpes simplex virus type 1 infection after Jewish ritual circumcision: modern medicine and religious tradition,” Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. e259–e263, 2004. View at Scopus
  93. R. Distel, V. Hofer, S. Bogger-Goren, I. Shalit, and B. Z. Garty, “Primary genital herpes simplex infection associated with Jewish ritual circumcision,” Israel Medical Association Journal, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 893–894, 2003. View at Scopus
  94. L. G. Rubin and P. Lanzkowsky, “Cutaneous neonatal herpes simplex infection associated with ritual circumcision,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 266–268, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection following Jewish ritual circumcisions that included direct orogenital suction—New York City, 2000–2011,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 61, pp. 405–409, 2012.
  96. R. S. Van Howe, “Errors in meta-analysis by Van Howe,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 218–220, 2009. View at Scopus
  97. D. W. Cameron, L. J. D'Costa, G. M. Maitha et al., “Female to male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: risk factors for seroconversion in men,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8660, pp. 403–407, 1989. View at Scopus
  98. J. M. Nasio, N. J. D. Nagelkerke, A. Mwatha, S. Moses, J. O. Ndinya-Achola, and F. A. Plummer, “Genital ulcer disease among STD clinic attenders'in Nairobi: association with HIV-1 and circumcision status,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 410–414, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. X. Castellsagué, F. X. Bosch, N. Muñoz et al., “Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 15, pp. 1105–1112, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. M. Lajous, N. Mueller, A. Cruz-Valdéz et al., “Determinants of prevalence, acquisition, and persistence of human papillomavirus in healthy Mexican military men,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1710–1716, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. R. S. Van Howe and C. J. Cold, “Human papillomavirus link to circumcision is misleading,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 15, no. 2, article 405, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. A. R. Giuliano, E. Lazcano, L. L. Villa et al., “Circumcision and sexual behavior: factors independently associated with human papillomavirus detection among men in the HIM study,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 1251–1257, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. R. H. Gray, G. Kigozi, D. Serwadda et al., “Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 369, pp. 657–666, 2007.
  104. A. A. R. Tobian, X. Kong, P. E. Gravitt , et al., “Male circumcision and anatomic sites of penile high-risk human papillomavirus in Rakai, Uganda,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 129, no. 12, pp. 2970–2975, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  105. B. Auvert, J. Sobngwi-Tambekou, E. Cutler et al., “Effect of male circumcision on the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in young men: results of a randomized controlled trial conducted in orange farm, South Africa,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 199, no. 1, pp. 14–19, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. R. Flores, L. Beibei, C. Nielson et al., “Correlates of human papillomavirus viral load with infection site in asymptomatic men,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 3573–3576, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. J. W. Travis, “Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer,” The New England journal of medicine, vol. 347, no. 18, pp. 1452–1453, 2002. View at Scopus
  108. R. S. Van Howe, “AAP: ‘spurious but entertaining’,” in 12th International Symposium on Law, Genital Autonomy, and Human Rights, Helsinki, Finland, September 2012.
  109. E. O. Laumann, J. H. Gagnon, R. T. Michael, and S. Michaels, The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1994.
  110. B. J. Morris, A. Mindel, A. A. R. Tobian et al., “Should male circumcision be advocated for genital cancer prevention?” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 13, pp. 4839–4842, 2012.
  111. B. J. Morris and R. G. Wamai, “Biological basis for the protective effect conferred by male circumcision against HIV infection,” International Journal of STD & AIDS, vol. 23, pp. 153–159, 2012.
  112. M. H. Dinh, M. D. McRaven, Z. L. Kelley, S. Penugonda, and T. J. Hope, “Keratinization of the adult male foreskin and implications for male circumcision,” AIDS, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 899–906, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. H. Dinh, T. Hirbod, G. Kigozi et al., “No difference in keratin thickness between inner and outer foreskins from elective male circumcisions in Rakai, Uganda,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, Article ID e41271, 2012.
  114. R. C. Bailey, S. Neema, and R. Othieno, “Sexual behaviors and other HIV risk factors in circumcised and uncircumcised men in Uganda,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 294–301, 1999. View at Scopus
  115. J. Chin, The AIDS Pandemic: The Collision of Epidemiology with Political Correctness, Radcliffe, Oxford, UK, 2007.
  116. L. de Witte, A. Nabatov, M. Pion et al., “Langerin is a natural barrier to HIV-1 transmission by Langerhans cells,” Nature Medicine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 367–371, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. C. Hooykaas, F. W. van der Velde, M. M. D. van der Linden, G. J. J. van Doornum, and R. A. Coutinho, “The importance of ethnicity as a risk factor for STDs and sexual behaviour among heterosexuals,” Genitourinary Medicine, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 378–383, 1991. View at Scopus
  118. C. Bolduan and L. Weiner, “Causes of death among Jews in New York City,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 208, pp. 407–416, 1933.
  119. J. Jacobs, “On the racial characteristics of modern Jews,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. 15, pp. 23–62, 1885.
  120. S. Glasner, “Judaism and sex,” in Encyclopedia of Sexual Behaviour, pp. 580–581, Jason Aronson, New York, NY, USA, 1973.
  121. D. Gisselquist, R. Rothenberg, J. Potterat, and E. Drucker, “Non-sexual transmission of HIV has been overlooked in developing countries,” British Medical Journal, vol. 324, no. 7331, article 235, 2002. View at Scopus
  122. D. Gisselquist and J. J. Potterat, “Heterosexual transmission of HIV in Africa: an empiric estimate,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 162–173, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. D. Gisselquist, J. J. Potterat, S. Brody, and F. Vachon, “Let it be sexual: how health care transmission of AIDS in Africa was ignored,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 148–161, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. D. Gisselquist, J. J. Potterat, and S. Brody, “Running on empty: sexual co-factors are insufficient to fuel Africa's turbocharged HIV epidemic,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 442–452, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. D. Gisselquist, Points to Consider: Responses to HIV/AIDS in Africa, Asia and Caribbean, Adonis & Abbey, London, UK, 2008.
  126. D. Gisselquist, “Denialism undermines AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 649–655, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. D. Gisselquist, J. J. Potterat, J. S. St Lawrence et al., “How to contain generalized HIV epidemics? A plea for better evidence to displace speculation,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 443–446, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. D. Gisselquist, J. J. Potterat, J. S. St Lawrence et al., “Repeating a plea for better research and evidence,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 416–417, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. B. Auvert, D. Taljaard, E. Lagarde, J. Sobngwi-Tambekou, R. Sitta, and A. Puren, “Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 trial,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 2, no. 11, article e298, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. R. C. Bailey, S. Moses, C. B. Parker et al., “Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 369, no. 9562, pp. 643–656, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. R. S. Van Howe and M. R. Storms, “How the circumcision solution in Africa will increase HIV infections,” Journal of Public Health in Africa, vol. 2, article e4, 2011.
  132. A. M. Johnson, J. Wadsworth, K. Wellings, J. Field, and S. Bradshaw, Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, UK, 1994.
  133. S. S. Dave, A. M. Johnson, K. A. Fenton, C. H. Mercer, B. Erens, and K. Wellings, “Male circumcision in Britain: findings from a national probability sample survey,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 499–500, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. D. J. Brookman, “Circumcision and STD,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 140, pp. 50–51, 1984.
  135. J. H. Waskett, B. J. Morris, and H. A. Weiss, “Errors in meta-analysis by Van Howe,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 216–218, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. R. C. Vreeman, S. M. E. Finnell, E. R. Cernkovich, and A. E. Carroll, “The effects of antiemetics for children with vomiting due to acute, moderate gastroenteritis,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 162, no. 9, pp. 866–869, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. M. W. Tyndall, A. R. Ronald, E. Agoki et al., “Increased risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among uncircumcised men presenting with genital ulcer disease in Kenya,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 449–453, 1996. View at Scopus
  138. D. M. Fergusson, J. M. Boden, and L. J. Horwood, “Circumcision status and risk of sexually transmitted infection in young adult males: an analysis of a longitudinal birth cohort,” Pediatrics, vol. 118, pp. 1971–1977, 2006.
  139. I. de Vincenzi and T. Mertens, “Male circumcision: a role in HIV prevention?” AIDS, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 153–160, 1994. View at Scopus
  140. S. W. Parker, A. J. Stewart, M. N. Wren, M. M. Gollow, and J. A. Straton, “Circumcision and sexually transmissible disease,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 2, pp. 288–290, 1983.
  141. L. A. Brinton, W. C. Reeves, M. M. Brenes et al., “The male factor in the etiology of cervical cancer among sexually monogamous women,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 199–203, 1989. View at Scopus
  142. R. A. Diseker III, L. S. Lin, M. L. Kamb et al., “Fleeting foreskins: the misclassification of male circumcision status,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 330–335, 2001. View at Scopus
  143. N. M. Schlossberger, R. A. Turner, and C. E. Irwin Jr., “Early adolescent knowledge and attitudes about circumcision: methods and implications for research,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 293–297, 1991. View at Scopus
  144. E. L. Wynder, N. Mantel, and S. D. Licklider, “Statistical considerations on circumcision and cervical cancer,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 1026–1030, 1960. View at Scopus
  145. J. Todd, K. Munguti, H. Grosskurth et al., “Risk factors for active syphilis and TPHA seroconversion in a rural African population,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 37–45, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. O. Laumann, “Advantages and disadvantages of neonatal circumcision,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 278, no. 3, pp. 202–203, 1997. View at Scopus
  147. K. F. Schulz, L. Chalmers, R. J. Hayes, and D. G. Altman, “Empirical evidence of bias: dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 273, no. 5, pp. 408–412, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. S. T. Normand, “Meta-analysis: formulation, evaluating, combining, and reporting,” Statistics in Medicine, vol. 18, pp. 321–359, 1999.
  149. M. D. Jennions and A. P. Møller, “Publication bias in ecology and evolution: an empirical assessment of the ‘trim and fill’ method,” Biological Reviews, vol. 77, pp. 211–222, 2002.
  150. N. R. C. Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics, Combining in Formation: Statistical Issues and Opportunities for Research, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1992.
  151. A. P. Møller and M. D. Jennions, “Testing and adjusting for publication bias,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 580–586, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. K. E. Agot, J. O. Ndinya-Achola, J. K. Kreiss, and N. S. Weiss, “Risk of HIV-1 in rural Kenya: a comparison of circumcised and uncircumcised men,” Epidemiology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 157–163, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. B. Auvert, A. Buvé, E. Lagarde et al., “Male circumcision and HIV infection in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa,” AIDS, vol. 15, supplement 5, pp. S31–S40, 2001. View at Scopus
  154. S. B. Baldwin, D. R. Wallace, M. R. Papenfuss, M. Abrahamsen, L. C. Vaught, and A. R. Giuliano, “Condom use and other factors affecting penile human papillomavirus detection in men attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 601–607, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. I. Bassett, B. Donovan, N. J. Bodsworth et al., “Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of heterosexual men attending a sexual health centre,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 160, no. 11, pp. 697–700, 1994. View at Scopus
  156. M. C. G. Bleeker, C. J. A. Hogewoning, F. J. Voorhorst et al., “HPV-associated flat penile lesions in men of a non-STD hospital population: less frequent and smaller in size than in male sexual partners of women with CIN,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 36–41, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. N. Dickson, T. van Roode, and C. Paul, “Herpes simplex virus type 2 status at age 26 is not related to early circumcision in a birth cohort,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 517–519, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. N. P. Dickson, J. Ryding, T. van Roode et al., “Male circumcision and serologically determined human papillomavirus infection in a birth cohort,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 177–183, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. R. A. Diseker III, T. A. Peterman, M. L. Kamb et al., “Circumcision and STD in the United States: cross sectional and cohort analyses,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 474–479, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. B. Donovan, I. Bassett, and N. J. Bodsworth, “Male circumcision and common sexually transmissible diseases in a developed nation setting,” Genitourinary Medicine, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 317–320, 1994. View at Scopus
  161. J. A. Ferris, J. Richters, M. K. Pitts et al., “Circumcision in Australia: further evidence on its effects on sexual health and wellbeing,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 160–164, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. S. Gebremedhin, “Assessment of the protective effect of male circumcision from HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases: evidence from 18 demographic and health surveys in sub-Saharan Africa,” African Journal of Reproductive Health, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 105–113, 2010. View at Scopus
  163. R. Gray, J. Azire, D. Serwadda et al., “Male circumcision and the risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Rakai, Uganda,” AIDS, vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 2428–2430, 2004. View at Scopus
  164. J. Harbertson, M. Grillo, E. Zimulinda et al., “HIV seroprevalence, associated risk behavior, and alcohol use among male Rwanda Defense Forces military personnel,” AIDS and Behavior. In press.
  165. G. Hart, “Factors associated with genital chlamydial and gonococcal infection in males,” Genitourinary Medicine, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 393–396, 1993. View at Scopus
  166. S. H. Kapiga, N. E. Sam, J. F. Shao, et al., “Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among bar and hotel workers in northern Tanzania: prevalence and risk factors,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 30, pp. 187–192, 2003.
  167. I. Klavs and F. F. Hamers, “Male circumcision in Slovenia: results from a national probability sample survey,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 49–50, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. L. Lavreys, J. P. Rakwar, M. L. Thompson et al., “Effect of circumcision on incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases: a prospective cohort study of trucking company employees in Kenya,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 330–336, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. D. Mandal, K. R. Haye, T. K. Ray, et al., “Prevalence of occult human papillomavirus infection, determined by cytology and DNA hybridization, in heterosexual men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 2, pp. 351–355, 1991.
  170. C. L. Mattson, R. T. Campbell, R. C. Bailey, K. Agot, J. O. Ndinya-Achola, and S. Moses, “Risk compensation is not associated with male circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: a multi-faceted assessment of men enrolled in a randomized controlled trial,” PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 6, Article ID e2443, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. S. D. Mehta, S. Moses, K. Agot et al., “Adult male circumcision does not reduce the risk of incident Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Trichomonas vaginalis infection: results from a randomized, controlled trial in Kenya,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 200, no. 3, pp. 370–378, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. S. D. Mehta, C. Gaydos, I. Maclean et al., “The effect of medical male circumcision on urogenital Mycoplasma genitalium among men in Kisumu, Kenya,” Sexual Transmitted Disease, vol. 39, pp. 276–280, 2012.
  173. Z. Mor, C. K. Kent, R. P. Kohn, and J. D. Klausner, “Declining rates in male circumcision amidst increasing evidence of its public health benefit,” PLoS ONE, vol. 2, no. 9, article e861, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. A. Mujugira, A. S. Magaret, J. M. Baeten, C. Celum, and J. Lingappa, “Risk factors for HSV-2 infection among sexual partners of HSV-2/HIV-1 Co-infected persons,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 4, article 64, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. E. E. Müller, T. F. Chirwa, and D. A. Lewis, “Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in heterosexual South African men attending sexual health services: associations between HPV and HIV serostatus,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 175–180, 2010.
  176. J. Newell, K. Senkoro, F. Mosha et al., “A population based study of syphilis and sexually tranmitted disease syndromes in north-western Tanzania. 2. Risk factors and health seeking behaviour,” Genitourinary Medicine, vol. 69, pp. 421–426, 1993.
  177. M. O. Ng'ayo, E. Bukusi, R. A. Morrow et al., “Sexual and demographic determinants for herpes simplex virus type 2 among fishermen along Lake Victoria, Kenya,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 140–142, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. M. O. Ng'ayo, E. Bukusi, A. Rowhani-Rahbar et al., “Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection among fishermen along Lake Victoria Shore in the Kisumu District, Kenya,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 62–66, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. C. M. Nielson, M. K. Schiaffino, E. F. Dunne, J. L. Salemi, and A. R. Giuliano, “Associations between male anogenital human papillomavirus infection and circumcision by anatomic site sampled and lifetime number of female sex partners,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 199, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. G. S. Ogilvie, D. L. Taylor, M. Achen, D. Cook, and M. Krajden, “Self-collection of genital human papillomavirus specimens in heterosexual men,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 221–225, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. B. Otieno-Nyunya, E. Bennett, R. Bunnell et al., “Epidemiology of syphilis in Kenya: results from a nationally representative serological survey,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 87, pp. 521–525, 2011.
  182. J. M. Partridge, J. P. Hughes, Q. Feng et al., “Genital human papillomavirus infection in men: Incidence and risk factors in a cohort of university students,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 196, no. 8, pp. 1128–1136, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. S. J. Reynolds, M. E. Shepherd, A. R. Risbud et al., “Male circumcision and risk of HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections in India,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9414, pp. 1039–1040, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. J. Richters, A. M. A. Smith, R. O. de Visser, A. E. Grulich, and C. E. Rissel, “Circumcision in Australia: prevalence and effects on sexual health,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 547–554, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. C. E. Rodriguez-Diaz, M. C. Clatts, G. G. Jovet-Toledo, R. L. Vargas-Molina, L. A. Goldsamt, and H. García, “More than foreskin: circumcision status, history of HIV/STI, and sexual risk in a clinic-based sample of men in Puerto Rico,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 2933–2937, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  186. R. I. Rombaldi, E. P. Serafini, L. L. Villa et al., “Infection with human papillomaviruses of sexual partners of women having cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 177–187, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. J. A. Schneider, V. Lakshmi, and R. Dandona, “Population-based seroprevalence of HSV-2 and syphilis in Andhra Pradesh state of India,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 10, p. 59, 2010.
  188. J. Seed, S. Allen, T. Mertens et al., “Male circumcision, sexually transmitted disease, and risk of HIV,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 83–90, 1995. View at Scopus
  189. H. R. Shin, S. Franceschi, S. Vaccarella et al., “Prevalence and determinants of genital infection with papillomavirus, in female and male university students in Busan, South Korea,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 190, no. 3, pp. 468–476, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. J. N. Simonsen, D. W. Cameron, M. N. Gakinya et al., “Human immunodeficiency virus infection among men with sexually transmitted diseases. Experience from a center in Africa,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 319, no. 5, pp. 274–278, 1988. View at Scopus
  191. G. L. Smith, R. Greenup, and E. T. Takafuji, “Circumcision as a risk factor for urethritis in racial groups,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 452–454, 1987. View at Scopus
  192. J. Sobngwi-Tambekou, D. Taljaard, M. Nieuwoudt, P. Lissouba, A. Puren, and B. Auvert, “Male circumcision and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis: observations after a randomised controlled trial for HIV prevention,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 116–120, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. E. I. Svare, S. K. Kjaer, A. M. Worm, A. Østerlind, C. J. L. M. Meijer, and A. J. C. van den Brule, “Risk factors for genital HPV DNA in men resemble those found in women: a study of male attendees at a Danish STD clinic,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 215–218, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. A. Talukdar, M. R. Khandokar, S. K. Bandopadhyay, and R. Detels, “Risk of HIV infection but not other sexually transmitted diseases is lower among homeless Muslim men in Kolkata,” AIDS, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 2231–2235, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. P. K. Taylor and P. Rodin, “Herpes genitalis and circumcision,” British Journal of Venereal Diseases, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 274–277, 1975. View at Scopus
  196. N. J. van Wagoner, W. M. Geisler, J. M. Sizemore, R. Whitley, and E. W. Hook, “Herpes simplex virus in African American heterosexual males: the roles of age and male circumcision,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 217–222, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. E. Vardas, A. R. Giuliano, S. Goldstone et al., “External genital human papillomavirus prevalence and associated factors among heterosexual men on 5 continents,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 203, no. 1, pp. 58–65, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. R. G. Vaz, S. Gloyd, E. Folgosa, and J. Kreiss, “Syphilis and HIV infection among prisoners in Muputo, Mozambique,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 6, pp. 42–46, 1995.
  199. F. Xu, L. E. Markowitz, M. R. Sternberg, and S. O. Aral, “Prevalence of circumcision and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in men in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2004,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 479–484, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus