Table 17: Evaluation of publication bias in studies evaluating the association between sexually transmitted diseases and circumcision status in adult males using the methods described by Egger et al. [39], Macaskill et al. [40], and Begg and Mazumdar [41].

BeggBegg’s alternativeEggerEgger’s weightedMacaskillMacaskill’s pooled variance

Genital discharge syndrome0.92870.32520.02130.00560.01270.0171
Nonspecific urethritis0.05490.03970.13010.38930.13220.0917
Chlamydia0.86950.95630.08550.00030.11720.2961
Gonorrhea0.28010.04040.34030.56530.11240.1764
Genital ulcerative disease0.65470.78840.37950.10730.18040.3424
Syphilis0.73560.62580.14290.89720.10230.6316
Genital herpes0.26460.01370.16270.00140.38030.1324
Genital warts0.58620.69180.17820.93780.57680.7383
Human papillomavirus: any type0.96270.55920.14610.00350.06390.0857
Human papillomavirus: oncogenic type0.81530.59110.24650.08890.05310.0913
Any sexually transmitted infection0.09130.34820.12860.0900<0.0001<0.0001
Any sexually transmitted infection: without Langeni0.80840.70790.95520.07650.20350.3550