Table 1: Patient data.

Mean ± SD Range

Mean age (years) 66 ± 13 25–85
Gender (male/female)46/17
Body mass index (kg/m2)23.5 ± 3.3 17–34
Operative time (min) 312 ± 144 89–727
Estimated blood loss (mL) 251 ± 365 10–1690
Concurrent disease ( ) 16 (25.4%)
History of abdominal surgery ( ) 5 (7.9%)