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ISRN Urology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 627249, 4 pages
Clinical Study

Frequent DNA Hypermethylation at the RASSF1A and APC Gene Loci in Prostate Cancer Patients of Pakistani Origin

1College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Al Mather Street, Takhassusi Road, Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Biology, Syed Babar Ali School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore 54792, Pakistan
3Department of Microbiology and Pathology, The Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
4Medical College, The Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
5Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, Karachi 74800, Pakistan

Received 13 December 2012; Accepted 13 January 2013

Academic Editors: A. Papatsoris and K. H. Tsui

Copyright © 2013 Ahmed Yaqinuddin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


DNA methylation has emerged as a potentially robust biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa). Since DNA methylomes appear to be disease as well as population specific, we have assessed the DNA methylation status of RASSF1A, APC, and p16 (potential biomarkers of PCa) in Pakistani population. Primary prostate cancer tissues were obtained from 27 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks (FFPE) of cancer patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) during 2003–2008. As controls, twenty-four benign prostatic FFPE tissues were obtained from patients who underwent TURP for benign prostatic hyperplasia during 2008. DNA was extracted, and methylation-specific PCR was used to assess the methylation status for RASSF1A, APC, and p16 gene promoters. Our results revealed that the RASSF1A promoter was hypermethylated in all the tested cancer samples but was also hypermethylated in 3 out of 24 control tissues. The APC promoter was hypermethylated in 15 out of 27 cancer samples and in none of the control samples. Strikingly, none of the samples showed methylation at the p16 promoter. Our findings suggest that RASSF1A and APC gene promoters are frequently hypermethylated in the Pakistani population and therefore have the potential to develop into universally dependable biomarkers for detecting PCa.