Table 2: Mean time in seconds (±standard deviation) measured from the onset of swallowing (closure of the epiglottis) in 11 healthy dogs [7].

ActionLiquidKibble

Maximum pharyngeal contraction0.15 ± 0.020.15 ± 0.02
Upper esophageal sphincter opening0.09 ± 0.020.10 ± 0.03
Upper esophageal sphincter closure0.26 ± 0.050.33 ± 0.06
Epiglottic reopening
0.28 ± 0.030.30 ± 0.02