Table 3: Mean values (±standard deviation) for pharyngeal constriction ratio and time to opening of the upper esophageal sphincter in healthy dogs, dogs with pharyngeal weakness, and dogs with cricopharyngeal dyssynchrony [7].

ValueHealthy dogs ( ) Pharyngeal weakness ( )Cricopharyngeal dyssynchrony ( )

Pharyngeal constriction ratio
0.15 ± 0.360.60 ± 0.280.61 ± 0.22
Upper esophageal sphincter opening (seconds)0.07 ± 0.000.07 ± 0.010.28 ± 0.04