Table 1: Incidence of Listeria species in feed of dairy cows.

Type of feedListeria spp. 𝑛 (%)L. monocytogenes 𝑛 (%)

Grass ( 𝑛 = 1 4 ) Not detectedNot detected
Silage ( 𝑛 = 4 8 ) 4 (3.1)6 (4.7)
Haylage ( 𝑛 = 1 6 ) 2 (1.5)2 (1.5)
Hay ( 𝑛 = 1 0 ) Not detected2 (1.5)
Feed concentrates ( 𝑛 = 3 2 ) Not detected12 (9.3)
Mixed fodder prepared in the farm ( 𝑛 = 4 ) 2 (1.5)2 (1.5)
Straw ( 𝑛 = 6 ) 4 (3.1)2 (1.5)
Total ( 𝑛 = 1 3 0 ) 12 (9.2)26 (20.0)