Table 5: Comparative analysis of the role of critical genes and signalling pathways involved in the carcinogenesis of human breast cancer and canine mammary tumor.

Human breast cancer Canine mammary tumor

Gene sets/signaling pathways
 P13K/AKT Upregulation Upregulation
 KRAS Upregulation Upregulation
 PTEN Downregulation Downregulation
 Wnt*b catenin Upregulation Upregulation
 MAPK cascade Upregulation Upregulation
 BRCA1 Downregulation Downregulation
 BRCA2 Upregulation Upregulation
 P53 Downregulation Downregulation

Table modified from Pinho et al., 2012 [7], and based mainly on data from Uva et al., 2009 [209].