ISRN Veterinary Science http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan Wed, 09 Apr 2014 12:59:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2014/878479/ Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. Junaid Iqbal, Mehwish Sagheer, Nazneen Tabassum, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, and Naveed Ahmed Khan Copyright © 2014 Junaid Iqbal et al. All rights reserved. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria Wed, 09 Apr 2014 08:50:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2014/806849/ Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (, , ). Exotic breed (adjusted ; ) and local breed of dogs (adjusted ; ) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. Gbeminiyi Richard Otolorin, Jarlath U. Umoh, and Asabe Adamu Dzikwi Copyright © 2014 Gbeminiyi Richard Otolorin et al. All rights reserved. Malignancy Associated MicroRNA Expression Changes in Canine Mammary Cancer of Different Malignancies Wed, 02 Apr 2014 12:55:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2014/148597/ MicroRNA has been suspected to be generally involved in carcinogenesis since their first description. A first study supported this assumption for canine mammary tumors when miRNA expression was compared to normal gland. The present study extends these results by comparing the expression of 16 microRNA (miRNA) and 4 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) in tumors of different malignancy, for example, adenomas, nonmetastasizing and metastasizing carcinomas as well as lymph node metastases, with each other and with normal mammary gland. All neoplastic tissues differed in their miR-210 expression levels from normal gland. While metastatic cells differed in their expression of mir-29b, miR-101, mir-125a, miR-143, and miR-145 from primary tumors, the comparison of miRNA expression in primary tumors of different malignancy failed to reveal significant differences except for a significant downregulation of mir-125a in metastasizing carcinomas when compared to adenomas. Marie-Charlotte von Deetzen, Bernd T. Schmeck, Achim D. Gruber, and Robert Klopfleisch Copyright © 2014 Marie-Charlotte von Deetzen et al. All rights reserved. Seroprevalence of Bluetongue Virus in Dairy Herds with Reproductive Problems in Sudan Wed, 19 Mar 2014 09:50:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2014/595724/ The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the seroprevalence of blue tongue virus (BTV) and assess potential risk factors associated with BTV infection in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. Serum samples were collected from a total of 784 animals from 37 herds and tested for antibodies against BTV using cELISA. A total of 663 out of 784 (84.57%) sera tested proved positive for BTV antibodies in all farms tested in Khartoum and Gazira States. The prevalence of antibodies was high in both areas being 94.32% in Gazira State and 76.62% in Khartoum State. BTV antibodies prevalence were significantly higher () in older animals than in younger ones. These rates were also significantly higher in the rainy season () and in Gazira State compared to Khartoum State. Sex also showed significant () differences in the seroprevalence, whereby females (74.7%) had higher level than males (9.8%). However, no significant () variations for BTV seroprevalence were observed between breeds. The BTV antibodies prevalence in infertility cases (86.6%) was not significantly different from that found in abortion (74.3%) or neonatal death (66.7%) cases. The high seroprevalence of BTV recorded herein calls for control strategy to be implemented. Amira Mohamed Elhassan, Mohamed Abdalla Fadol, and Abdel Rahim Mohamed El Hussein Copyright © 2014 Amira Mohamed Elhassan et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Albizia lebbeck Saponin and Its Fractions on In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics, Rumen Methanogenesis, and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics Tue, 04 Mar 2014 07:41:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2014/498218/ The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crude seed powder (CSP) and gross saponins extract (GSE) of seeds of Albizia lebbeck on antimicrobial activity by taking two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi) bacteria, and two fungi species (Aspergillus niger and Candida butyric) were taken at 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg levels using agar well diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was increased with increasing of concentration of CSP and saponins which indicates that Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), Gram-positive bacteria (B. cereus), and A. niger were significantly susceptible to inhibition. Another experiment was conducted to study the effect of GSE and saponins fraction A and B of A. lebbeck supplementation at 6% on DM basis on methane production and other rumen fermentation parameters using in vitro gas production test, by taking three different type diets, that is, high fiber diet (D1, 60R : 40C), medium fiber diet (D2, 50R : 50C), and low fiber diet (D3, 40R : 60C). Significant () increase was seen in IVDMD, methane production; however ammonia nitrogen concentration decreased as compared to control. The methane production was reduced in a range between 12 and 49% by saponin supplemented diets except in case of GSE in D2. Sap A showed the highest methane reduction per 200 mg of truly digested substrate (TDS) than other treatment groups. Results in relation with quantification of methanogens and protozoa by qPCR indicated the decreasing trend with saponins of A. lebbek in comparison with control except total methanogen quantified using mcr-A based primer. Sunil Kumar Sirohi, Navneet Goel, and Nasib Singh Copyright © 2014 Sunil Kumar Sirohi et al. All rights reserved. Expression and Regulation of Facilitative Glucose Transporters in Equine Insulin-Sensitive Tissue: From Physiology to Pathology Tue, 04 Mar 2014 07:38:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2014/409547/ Glucose uptake is the rate-limiting step in glucose utilization in mammalians and is tightly regulated by a family of specialized proteins, called the facilitated glucose transporters (GLUTs/SLC2). GLUT4, the major isoform in insulin-responsive tissue, translocates from an intracellular pool to the cell surface and as such determines insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. However, despite intensive research over 50 years, the insulin-dependent and -independent pathways that mediate GLUT4 translocation are not fully elucidated in any species. Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the hallmarks of equine metabolic syndrome and is the most common metabolic predisposition for laminitis in horses. IR is characterized by the impaired ability of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal into insulin-sensitive tissues. Similar to other species, the functional capability of the insulin-responsive GLUTs is impaired in muscle and adipose tissue during IR in horses. However, the molecular mechanisms of altered glucose transport remain elusive in all species, and there is still much to learn about the physiological and pathophysiological functions of the GLUT family members, especially in regard to class III. Since GLUTs are key regulators of whole-body glucose homeostasis, they have received considerable attention as potential therapeutic targets to treat metabolic disorders in human and equine patients. Véronique A. Lacombe Copyright © 2014 Véronique A. Lacombe. All rights reserved. Do Handling and Transport Stress Influence Adrenocortical Response in the Tortoises (Testudo hermanni)? Thu, 20 Feb 2014 14:24:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2014/798273/ The goal of this study was to analyze circulating cortisol levels from tortoises (Testudo hermanni) to establish reference intervals and to develop guidelines for the interpretation of the effect of handling and transport stress. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal venous from 23 healthy juvenile tortoises (9 males and 14 females), aged 8–20 years, in basal condition, four weeks prior to and four weeks following handling and short transportation. The study was carried out on the experimental group: 10 tortoises, 4 males and 6 females, and on a control group: 13 tortoises, 5 males and 8 females. Compared to basal values, circulating cortisol concentrations was higher after handling and transport (+286%; ), with an increase of +246% () in males, +236% () in females, +370% () in subjects aged 8–12 years, and +240% () in subjects aged 13–20 years. These observations support the hypotheses that cortisol may act to mediate the effects of handling and transport stress in this species and that four weeks following handling and transport were insufficient to restore their homeostasis. Esterina Fazio, Pietro Medica, Giuseppe Bruschetta, and Adriana Ferlazzo Copyright © 2014 Esterina Fazio et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Characterization of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Associated with Gumboro Outbreaks in Commercial Broilers from Asyut Province, Egypt Sun, 09 Feb 2014 11:56:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2014/916412/ Ten infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field strains were isolated from 15 broiler flocks located in various parts of Asyut, Egypt. Seven strains were subjected to comparative sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to help provide optimal control program for protection against IBDV infection. Sequence analysis of a 530 bp hypervariable region in the VP2 gene revealed that the rate of identity and homology was around 95.6~99.1%. Sequence characterization revealed the 7 strains identified as vvIBDV with the four amino acids residues typical of vvIBDV (242I, 256I, 294I, 299S). The BURSA-VAC vaccine was the nearest vaccine in sequence similarity to the local examined IBDV strains followed by CEVACIBDL then Bursine plus and Nobilis Gumboro indicating its probable success in the face of incoming outbreaks when using these vaccines. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the presence of three clusters for the examined strains and are grouped with reference very virulent IBDVs of European and Asian origin (Japanese and Hong Kong) strains suggesting the different ancestors of our isolates. The antigenic index showed a number of changes on the major and minor hydrophilic antigenic peaks of the virus surface structures indicating a new genetic evolution of the surface structure epitopes that may lead to vaccination failure and reemergence of the disease. Moemen A. Mohamed, Kamal E. S. Elzanaty, Bakhit M. Bakhit, and Marwa M. Safwat Copyright © 2014 Moemen A. Mohamed et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Spinosad Tablets Administered to a Colony of 15 Indoor Cats Naturally Infested with Fleas Wed, 05 Feb 2014 08:17:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2014/484308/ The aims of the study were (i) to describe adult fleas distribution in a strictly indoor cat colony composed of cats with flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) and non-FAD cats and (ii) to evaluate the efficacy of spinosad used alone. Skin lesions were scored according to the SCORing Feline Allergic Dermatitis lesion severity scale (SCORFAD) on days 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90. Cats were combed prior to the treatment (days 0, 30, and 60) and on days 15, 45, and 90; collected fleas were replaced on the animals. All cats received flavored spinosad tablets (Comfortis) at a dosage of 50–75 mg/kg on days 0, 30, and 60. Cats were fed immediately afterwards. On day 0, a total of 60 fleas were collected (mean: ). Cats with FAD had a SCORFAD of 6, 8, 12, and 13 and harbored 0, 2, 1, and 0 fleas, respectively. Tablets were taken voluntarily by 8, 11, and 12 cats on days 0, 30, and 60, respectively. No adverse event was recorded. From day 15 to day 90, no fleas could be collected. SCORFAD was reduced by 40%, 71%, 80%, 89%, and 98% on days 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, respectively. Marie-Christine Cadiergues and Charline Pressanti Copyright © 2014 Marie-Christine Cadiergues and Charline Pressanti. All rights reserved. A Serological Survey of Akabane Virus Infection in Cattle in Sudan Tue, 21 Jan 2014 09:30:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2014/123904/ A cross-sectional survey was carried out in ten states in Sudan to determine seroprevalence and to assess risk factors associated with Akabane virus (AKAV) infection in dairy herds. Serum samples were collected from a total of 361 dairy cattle and tested for antibodies against AKAV using ELISA. The prevalence rates of AKAV antibodies in cattle varied between 69.6% in Khartoum state and 3.3% in Sennar State with an overall prevalence rate of 29.4%. The prevalence rates of AKAV antibodies were significantly associated with breed being high in crossbred (39.9%; ); female sex (33%; ), and animals in the age group of 2-3 years old (45.3%; ). Akabane virus antibodies prevalence was also highly associated with locality (); season being high in winter season (58.1%; ); and animals raised under intensive management system (37%; ). Among 68 cases suffering from reproductive (abortion and infertility) problems the prevalence rate of AKAV antibodies in animals with infertility problem (76.2%; ) was significantly higher than in animals with abortion (48.9%). The study revealed that AKAV infection is highly prevalent in dairy cattle in Sudan and this calls for control strategy to be implemented. Amira M. Elhassan, Mohammed E. A. Mansour, Awadia A. A. Shamon, and A. M. El Hussein Copyright © 2014 Amira M. Elhassan et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Cefpodoxime with Clavulanic Acid in the Treatment of Recurrent Pyoderma in Dogs Sun, 12 Jan 2014 12:55:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2014/467010/ In the present study on recurrent pyoderma, dogs with a history of more than three episodes of skin infections in a period of one year were selected. The associated conditions and (or) underlying factors revealed upon thorough investigation were demodicosis, Malassezia dermatitis, flea infestation, hypothyroidism, keratinization disorder (seborrhea), combination of Malassezia dermatitis and tick infestation, and a combination of scabies and tick infestation. Therapy was given with cefpodoxime with clavulanic acid along with appropriate simultaneous medication for the underlying associated conditions. In all the cases response to therapy was excellent. Improvement was noticed by 9 to 19 days and 17 to 21 days in recurrent superficial and deep pyoderma, respectively. In one dog, relapse occurred by 45 days due to the associated condition of hypothyroidism which was confirmed through laboratory findings. Cefpodoxime with clavulanic acid proved to be an effective, safe, and convenient antibiotic for the treatment of recurrent pyoderma in dogs without any side effects. B. Sudhakara Reddy, K. Nalini Kumari, V. Vaikunta Rao, and V. C. Rayulu Copyright © 2014 B. Sudhakara Reddy et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Swimming on Clinical Functional Parameters and Serum Biomarkers in Healthy and Osteoarthritic Dogs Thu, 09 Jan 2014 12:32:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2014/459809/ This study aimed to determine whether swimming could improve function of osteoarthritic joints in canine hip OA. Fifty-five dogs were categorized into three groups. The OA with swimming group (OA-SW; ), the healthy (non-OA; ) with swimming group (H-SW), and the healthy (non-OA; ) without swimming group (H-NSW). All animals were allowed to swim for a total of 8 weeks (2-day period, 3 cycles of swimming for 20 minutes, and resting period for 5 minutes in each cycle). Three ml of blood was collected every 2 weeks for evaluation of the levels of biomarkers for OA, including chondroitin sulfate epitope WF6 (CS-WF6) and hyaluronan (HA). Clinical evaluation of the OA-SW group found that most parameters showed improvement () at week 8 compared to pretreatment, while pain on palpation was improved () at week 6. The relative level of serum CS-WF6 in the OA-SW group was found to be significantly different () at weeks 6 and 8 compared with the preexercise. The levels of serum HA of the H-SW group in weeks 2–8 were significantly () higher than preexercise. Conclusion, swimming over 2-day period, 8 weeks continually, can improve the function of OA joint. Korakot Nganvongpanit, Sikhrin Tanvisut, Terdsak Yano, and Prachya Kongtawelert Copyright © 2014 Korakot Nganvongpanit et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of the Distribution of Salmonella within an Integrated Pig Breeding and Production Organisation in the United Kingdom Tue, 17 Dec 2013 18:41:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/943126/ To examine patterns of Salmonella herd infections in units linked by common sources of pigs, the study examined pooled pen faeces samples from 161 nursery and finishing units in a UK integrated pig enterprise. An epidemiological questionnaire was also completed by investigators for each farm. Salmonella was isolated from 630 (19.5%) of the samples: S. Typhimurium was found in 387 (12%) and S. Derby in 157 (4.9%) samples; 111 units yielded at least one sample containing Salmonella. The proportion of Salmonella-positive samples from positive farms ranged from 5% to 95%. In a univariable risk factor analysis, increasing length of time as a pig farm was positively associated with the detection of Salmonella in a herd. Larger farms (>500 pigs) were significantly more likely to be positive for S. Typhimurium than smaller farms. There was an association between Salmonella serovars isolated in the present study and those subsequently isolated in breeding herds linked to the integration. A. Wales, J. Weaver, I. M. McLaren, R. P. Smith, D. Mueller-Doblies, and R. H. Davies Copyright © 2013 A. Wales et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Antibodies and Confirmation of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Using Nested PCR in Bulk Milk Samples from Nakasongola and Sembabule Districts, Uganda Mon, 16 Dec 2013 16:05:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/369730/ Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an emerging pathogen in many livestock and wildlife populations around the world. Concerns range from the serious economic impacts on livestock productivity to its suspected role in the human inflammatory bowel disease syndrome. Milk and faeces of infected animals are the main vehicles through which the organism spreads from infected to susceptible hosts. In this study, a survey was done in Nakasongola and Sembabule districts of Uganda involving a total of seven dairy collection centres to determine the prevalence of antibodies to MAP in bulk milk samples. The milk was tested with a commercial ELISA kit for MAP testing in milk. Positive and suspicious milk samples were further tested using nested PCR. Of the 257 milk samples tested, 11 (4.3%) were positive and five (1.9%) were suspicious. All the ELISA positive and suspicious milk samples were positive using nested PCR. The results show that MAP infection occurs in cattle from the two districts and highlight the need for a paratuberculosis control program in these and other districts where MAP infection has been reported. Julius Boniface Okuni, Tony Oyo, Magid Kisekka, Sylvester Ochwo, David Kalenzi Atuhaire, Mathias Afayoa, William Olaho-Mukani, and Lonzy Ojok Copyright © 2013 Julius Boniface Okuni et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Rabies Antigen in the Saliva and Brains of Apparently Healthy Dogs Slaughtered for Human Consumption and Its Public Health Implications in Abia State, Nigeria Thu, 12 Dec 2013 18:29:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/468043/ The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area. P. P. Mshelbwala, A. B. Ogunkoya, and B. V. Maikai Copyright © 2013 P. P. Mshelbwala et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Cholesterol and Equex-STM Addition to an Egg Yolk Extender on Pure Spanish Stallion Cryopreserved Sperm Thu, 12 Dec 2013 12:17:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/280143/ Cholesterol and Equex-STM are frequently added to different commercial and experimental extenders improving postthawing sperm quality. Doses of 125–150 mM of cholesterol from pig liver and 0.5–0.7% of Equex-STM were evaluated in a standard eggyolk extender (Martin et al., 1979). Six ejaculates per stallion from six pure Spanish stallions (6–8 years old) were collected in Martin's extender (B) and different mixtures of 125 mM-0.5% (I), 125 mM-0.7% (II), 150 mM-0.5% (III), and 150 mM-0.7% (IV) were added to original Martin's extender. Samples were frozen in 0.5 mL straws ( spermatozoa) and thawed (21 s., water bath). After thawing the following parameters were evaluated: viability (V), motility (computer assisted sperm analysis, CASA; % nonprogressive NP; % progressive MP), hipoosmotic swelling test (HOST), acrosome integrity (A), fluorescence test (FL), and resistance test (RT). Sperm quality was significantly affected by stallion (in the parameters V, VI, NP, MP, HOST, A, FL, and RT), extraction (VI, NP, MP, HOST, A, and FL), and the different combinations of Equex-STM-cholesterol (FL). We concluded that 0.5% of Equex-STM mixed with 125 mM of cholesterol has obtained better sperm quality results than those of original Martin's extender, showing a simple and economic improvement of this home-made practical seminal extender. Lidia Gil, Iván Galindo-Cardiel, C. Malo, N. González, and C. Álvarez Copyright © 2013 Lidia Gil et al. All rights reserved. Use of a Multiplex PCR for the Detection of Toxin-Encoding Genes netB and tpeL in Strains of Clostridium perfringens Wed, 11 Dec 2013 15:09:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/865702/ Some studies have shown that the NetB toxin may be an important virulence factor of Clostridium perfringens associated necrotic enteritis in poultry. Additionally, research has shown that strains of C. perfringens positive for both the netB gene and a second toxin-encoding gene, tpeL, appear to be more virulent than strains with only netB. In the past, detection of these genes has been performed relatively inefficiently using two single locus PCRs. This report describes a novel multiplex PCR developed to detect netB and tpeL simultaneously in C. perfringens strains isolated from cases of necrotic enteritis in broilers, providing a more efficient diagnostic tool in the screening of strains for these genes. Matthew A. Bailey, Kenneth S. Macklin, and James T. Krehling Copyright © 2013 Matthew A. Bailey et al. All rights reserved. Recent Developments in Liposome-Based Veterinary Therapeutics Thu, 10 Oct 2013 09:28:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/167521/ Recent advances in nanomedicine have been studied in the veterinary field and have found a wide variety of applications. The past decade has witnessed a massive surge of research interest in liposomes for delivery of therapeutic substances in animals. Liposomes are nanosized phospholipid vesicles that can serve as delivery platforms for a wide range of substances. Liposomes are easily formulated, highly modifiable, and easily administered delivery platforms. They are biodegradable and nontoxic and have long in vivo circulation time. This review focuses on recent and ongoing research that may have relevance for veterinary medicine. By examining the recent developments in liposome-based therapeutics in animal cancers, vaccines, and analgesia, this review depicts the current significance and future directions of liposome-based delivery in veterinary medicine. Hassan Sadozai and Dorsa Saeidi Copyright © 2013 Hassan Sadozai and Dorsa Saeidi. All rights reserved. Cognitive Enrichment in Piglet Rearing: An Approach to Enhance Animal Welfare and to Reduce Aggressive Behaviour Tue, 01 Oct 2013 11:26:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/389186/ It is known that pigs raised in enriched environments express less aggressive behaviour. For this reason, a new method of cognitive environmental enrichment was experimented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. In the first phase, 78 suckling piglets were trained to learn the link between a sound given by an electronic feeder and a feed reward in the form of chocolate candies during a period of 8 days. In the second phase, the same piglets were used in resident-intruder tests to verify the potential of the feeding system to interrupt aggressive behaviour. The analysis of all training rounds revealed that piglets learned the commands during 8 days of training and the interest of the piglets increased within training days (). In the resident-intruder test, 79.5% of aggressive interactions were broken by feeder activation. In interactions where either the aggressor or the receiver reacted, a high number of fights were stopped (96.7% versus 93.1%) indicating that it was not relevant if the aggressor or the receiver responded to the feeder activation. We conclude that the electronic feeding system has the potential to be used as cognitive enrichment for piglets, being suitable for reducing aggressive behaviour in resident-intruder situations. Lilia Thays Sonoda, Michaela Fels, Sally Rauterberg, Stefano Viazzi, Gunel Ismayilova, Maciej Oczak, Claudia Bahr, Marcella Guarino, Erik Vranken, Daniel Berckmans, and Jörg Hartung Copyright © 2013 Lilia Thays Sonoda et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis from Intestinal and Nodal Tissue of Dogs and Cats Mon, 23 Sep 2013 15:13:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/323671/ Objective. To determine prevalence of MAP in intestinal and nodal tissue from dogs and cats at necropsy at Kansas State University and to determine if an association existed between presence of MAP and gastrointestinal inflammation, clinical signs, or rural exposure. Procedures. Tissue samples were collected from the duodenum, ileum, and mesenteric and colic nodes of adult dogs (73) and cats (37) undergoing necropsy for various reasons. DNA was extracted and analyzed for insertion sequence 900 using nested PCR. Positive samples were confirmed with DNA sequencing. An online mapping system was used to determine if patients lived in an urban or rural environment based on the home address. Medical records were reviewed for clinical signs and histological findings at necropsy. Results. MAP was identified from 3/73 (4.1%) dogs and 3/37 (8.1%) cats. There was no documented association between presence of MAP and identification of histologic-confirmed gastrointestinal inflammation, gastrointestinal clinical signs, or exposure to a rural environment. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. MAP-specific DNA can be identified within the intestinal and nodal tissue of dogs and cats that do not have pathological lesions or clinical signs consistent with gastrointestinal disease. The significance of this organism’s presence without associated gastrointestinal pathology is unknown. Kate S. KuKanich, Javier Vinasco, and H. Morgan Scott Copyright © 2013 Kate S. KuKanich et al. All rights reserved. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dairy Cattle with Reproductive Problems in Sudan Thu, 19 Sep 2013 08:28:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/895165/ Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other warm-blooded animals in most parts of the world. The disease is common among sheep and goats and it is recognized as one of the major causes of reproductive failure in these animals. Cattle, on the other hand, can be infected, but abortion or perinatal mortality has not been recorded. This survey was carried out to study the prevalence of this disease in cattle in Khartoum and Gazira States (Sudan). 181 sera samples collected from dairy cattle with reproductive problems were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by ELISA. The prevalence rate of T. gondii antibodies in cattle at herd level was 44.8% (13/29). Herd level infection rates were 50% and 33.3% in Khartoum and Gazira States, respectively. The overall prevalence of T. gondii at individual level in both states was 13.3% (24/181). The prevalence was 12.7% (17/134), was 14.9% (7/47) in Khartoum and Gazira State, respectively. There was significantly higher () prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in the age group less than one year old (36.4%) than in other age groups and in males (30.8%) than in females (11.9%) while no significant relationship was discerned regarding breed, location, season, or signs of reproductive disease. Abdelghafar M. Elfahal, Amira M. Elhassan, Mohammed O. Hussien, Khalid A. Enan, Azza B. Musa, and Abdelrahim M. El Hussein Copyright © 2013 Abdelghafar M. Elfahal et al. All rights reserved. Physiological Parameters of Endurance Horses Pre- Compared to Post-Race, Correlated with Performance: A Two Race Study from Scandinavia Wed, 18 Sep 2013 08:47:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/684353/ Few studies have investigated the physiological parameters of endurance horses in Scandinavia. Hence, this two race study has focused on the effects of endurance racing in terms of equine clinicopathological blood parameters, heart score, and fluid use. Race A involved 15 horses (120 km). Two pre- and one post-race blood samples were taken, body condition score was assessed in triplicate pre-race, and an ECG was used to determine heart score. Race B involved 16 horses (65–120 km). One pre- and two post-race blood samples were taken. For both races, horse data as well as fluid intake estimates and cooling water were noted. Race A showed that blood haematocrit, albumin, sodium, and triglycerides increased significantly with endurance racing, whilst chloride, glucose, iron, and potassium decreased significantly. In race B, blood creatinine, cholesterol, and inorganic phosphate continued to increase significantly during the first post-race sampling period compared to pre-race levels, whilst iron, which decreased significantly during the race, increased significantly over the two post-race sampling periods. It is concluded that whilst no correlation between heart score and speed was observed, a significant correlation exists between experience and changes in blood parameters with endurance racing and between fluid intake and average speed. J. Larsson, P. H. Pilborg, M. Johansen, M. T. Christophersen, A. Holte, L. Roepstorff, L. H. Olsen, and A. P. Harrison Copyright © 2013 J. Larsson et al. All rights reserved. Virological Investigation of Avian Influenza Virus on Postglacial Species of Phasianidae and Tetraonidae in the Italian Alps Tue, 17 Sep 2013 08:47:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/601732/ Land-based birds, belonging to Galliformes order are considered to be potential intermediaries in the emergence of new strains of influenza A viruses (AIVs), but the viral circulation in these birds remains largely unknown. To gain insights into the circulation of AIV in the wild Galliformes populations in Italian Alps, we conducted a virological survey on rock partridge (Alectoris graeca saxatilis) belonging to Phasianidae family and on tetraonids including rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus helveticus) and black grouse (Tetrao tetrix tetrix). In 2003 and 2004, during the hunting seasons, 79 wild Galliformes, categorised into age and sex classes, were hunted in the Sondrio Province (Central Alps). Cloacal swabs were collected from 11 rock partridges and from 68 tetraonids including 23 alpine rock ptarmigans and 45 black grouses. We tested cloacal swabs by a high sensitive reverse transcription- (RT-) PCR detecting the matrix gene of AIV. No AIV was detected in the investigated samples, thus, suggesting the lack of AIV circulation in these relict populations in the study period. In terms of threatened species conservation, during wildlife management activities, it is very important to exclude the introduction of AIV-carrier birds in shared territories, a fact representing a health risk for these populations. Mauro Delogu, Giulia Ghetti, Alessandro Gugiatti, Claudia Cotti, Isabella Piredda, Matteo Frasnelli, and Maria A. De Marco Copyright © 2013 Mauro Delogu et al. All rights reserved. High Mortality Rate due to False Gid in a Sheep Herd Mon, 12 Aug 2013 10:55:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/650358/ The sheep nasal bot, Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae), is a cosmopolitan parasite commonly found in sheep and occasionally goats. Rarely a bot will migrate into the sheep brain (false gid). Following the complaint of an animal husbandman about high mortality rate in a sheep herd, the herd was clinically, hematologically, and pathologically examined exactly. Clinical, hematological, and pathological findings were described in the text. Necropsy findings showed heavy infestation with Oestrus ovis larvae. The herd was treated with Ivermectin. After treatment all patients without nervous sings were recovered. Patients with nervous signs did not respond to treatment, but new cases of disease did not occur and the mortality stopped. In the present report, a high mortality rate due to false gid in a sheep herd was described. The prevention and control of the disease are important because of economic losses and the possibility of transmission to the human. Ali Asghar Mozaffari, Saeedeh Shojaeepour, and Shahin Ghahremani Ghareh Cheshmeh Copyright © 2013 Ali Asghar Mozaffari et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between the Prevalence of Ectoparasites and Associated Risk Factors in Free-Range Pigs in Kenya Wed, 24 Jul 2013 12:53:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/650890/ A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites and possible risk factors in free-range pigs from 135 farms of Busia District, Kenya. Three hundred and six pigs were examined for presence of external parasites using standard parasitological methods. Data on management practices including housing and history of acaricide spraying were also collected. The ectoparasites found in the pigs were Haematopinus suis (96.1%), Sarcoptes scabiei (63.7%), and ticks (29.7%). The tick species included Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (70%), Boophilus decoloratus (31%), and Amblyomma variegatum (12%). The occurrence of the infestations was associated with age, being highest in sows (S. scabiei) and finishers (ticks and H. suis). Male pigs had highest prevalences of H. suis and ticks, while female pigs had highest prevalence of S. scabiei. The prevalence of the parasitic infestations was significantly () associated with their origin being either lower (H. suis and S. scabiei) or higher (ticks) in pigs originating from divisions with high rainfall. Housed pigs had significantly () lower prevalence of H. suis and ticks than those from households without pig housing. It is concluded that the free-range pigs have high prevalence of ectoparasites, and effective control strategies focussing on improved animal husbandry and acaricide use should be implemented. John Maina Kagira, Paul Njuki Kanyari, Ndicho Maingi, Samuel Maina Githigia, Chege Ng'ang'a, and John Gachohi Copyright © 2013 John Maina Kagira et al. All rights reserved. Estimation of Genetic and Phenotypic Parameters for Production Traits and Somatic Cell Count for Jersey Dairy Cattle in Zimbabwe Thu, 11 Jul 2013 13:57:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/470585/ Genetic and phenotypic parameters for production traits and somatic cell count (SCC) for Jersey dairy cattle in Zimbabwe were estimated. A total of 10986 lactation records were obtained from Zimbabwe Livestock Identification Trust, with cows calving in the period from 1996 to 2008. An ASReml program fitting an animal model was used for the analyses. Heritability estimates for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and Log10SCC were 0.30, 0.32, 0.33, 0.42, 0.44, and 0.08, respectively. The corresponding repeatability estimates were 0.39, 0.38, 0.39, 0.49, 0.51, and 0.16, respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between different production traits ranged from −0.86 to 0.95 and from −0.88 to 0.98, respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits and Log10SCC were weak almost nonsignificantly differentl from zero. The results imply that milk traits for Jersey dairy cattle in Zimbabwe are more heritable. Therefore, these traits may be preferred by breeders as selection criteria for development of effective genetic improvement programme. Edward Missanjo, Venancio Imbayarwo-Chikosi, and Tinyiko Halimani Copyright © 2013 Edward Missanjo et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Conformation Traits and Lifetime Production Efficiency of Cows Wed, 26 Jun 2013 13:10:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/124690/ Analysis was made of the relationship between conformation traits and lifetime production efficiency of the cows that first calved in 2000 and represented the active population in the Pomorze and Kujawy regions of Poland. The CORR Pearson procedures of SAS package were used in the statistical calculations. It was found that there is a statistically significant relationship, weak or low on the Guilford scale, between conformation traits and lifetime production efficiency of the cows, which is slightly higher for milk yield than for longevity. The type and conformation traits appear to be more suitable than the detailed traits for predicting the lifetime production efficiency of cows. Lifetime performance was most strongly related to the overall score and udder score (), followed by the scores for type and conformation and legs and feet (), and detailed traits such as udder width and dairy character (). The highest positive effect on longevity was exerted by udder score and legs and feet () and among detailed traits by udder placement () and fore udder attachment (). A. Sawa, M. Bogucki, S. Krężel-Czopek, and W. Neja Copyright © 2013 A. Sawa et al. All rights reserved. Isolation and Characterization of Mycoplasma mycoides Subspecies capri from Milk of Natural Goat Mastitis Cases Mon, 20 May 2013 16:20:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/593029/ Association of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc) with natural goat mastitis has been studied earlier largely by detecting the Mmc DNA using molecular methods. However, report on detection of cultivable Mmc isolates from natural goat-mastitis milk is still very rare. In this study, Mmc was isolated from milk samples () of goats with or without clinical signs of mastitis. Mmc isolates were further characterized by biochemical and species-specific PCR methods. Intra species strain variation was also studied by 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis (16S ARDRA). The study recovered a total of 6 Mmc isolates (3.5%). Three types of intraspecies variants among the recovered Mmc isolates were found by 16S ARDRA. The study concluded that Mmc may be an etiological agent of mycoplasmal mastitis in Indian goat herds. Vijay Kumar, Rajneesh Rana, Somya Mehra, and Pramod Kumar Rout Copyright © 2013 Vijay Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Serological Evidence of Brucellosis in Goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria Thu, 16 May 2013 17:48:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/963673/ A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria. B. Y. Kaltungo, S. N. A. Saidu, A. K. B. Sackey, and H. M. Kazeem Copyright © 2013 B. Y. Kaltungo et al. All rights reserved. Ruminal Degradability and Summative Models Evaluation for Total Digestible Nutrients Prediction of Some Forages and Byproducts in Goats Mon, 13 May 2013 10:00:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.veterinary.science/2013/532528/ In in vitro true dry matter degradability (IVTDMD), in situ dry matter degradability, and neutral detergent fiber degradability, both in vitro (IVNDFD) and in situ (ISNDFD) techniques were used with crossbred goats to determine dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ruminal degradability in eight forages and four industrial byproducts. Total digestible nutrients (TDN) content obtained with five different summative models (summative equations) were studied to compare the precision of estimates. All these models included digestible fractions of crude protein, ether extract, and nonfiber carbohydrates that were calculated from chemical composition, but digestible NDF (dNDF) was obtained from IVNDFD (IVdNDF), ISNDFD (ISdNDF), or by using the Surface Law approach. On the basis of the coefficient of determination () of the simple lineal regression of predicted TDN (-axes) and observed IVTDMD (-axes), the precision of models was tested. The predicted TDN by the National Research Council model exclusively based on chemical composition only explains up to 41% of observed IVTDMD values, whereas the model based on IVdNDF had a high precision (96%) to predict TDN from forage and byproducts fiber when used in goats. Oswaldo Rosendo, Luis Freitez, and Rafael López Copyright © 2013 Oswaldo Rosendo et al. All rights reserved.