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ISRN Virology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 898730, 33 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/898730
Review Article

Parvovirus B19 Achievements and Challenges

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, and Microbiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy

Received 3 March 2013; Accepted 29 March 2013

Academic Editors: C.-T. Bock, M. Magnani, M. Michaelis, and V. Yedavalli

Copyright © 2013 Giorgio Gallinella. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Parvovirus B19 is a widespread human pathogenic virus, member of the Erythrovirus genus in the Parvoviridae family. Infection can be associated with an ample range of pathologies and clinical manifestations, whose characteristics and outcomes depend on the interplay between the pathogenetic potential of the virus, its adaptation to different cellular environments, and the physiological and immune status of the infected individuals. The scope of this review is the advances in knowledge on the biological characteristics of the virus and of virus-host relationships; in particular, the interactions of the virus with different cellular environments in terms of tropism and ability to achieve a productive replicative cycle, or, on the contrary, to establish persistence; the consequences of infection in terms of interference with the cell physiology; the process of recognition of the virus by the innate or adaptive immune system, hence the role of the immune system in controlling the infection or in the development of clinical manifestations. Linked to these issues is the continuous effort to develop better diagnostic algorithms and methods and the need for development of prophylactic and therapeutic options for B19V infections.