ISRN Virology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Retracted: The Genomic and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolate WUH2 Sun, 01 Jun 2014 13:46:03 +0000 ISRN Virology Copyright © 2014 ISRN Virology. All rights reserved. Molecular Phylogeny of Suid Herpesvirus 1 Thu, 10 Apr 2014 07:03:50 +0000 Pseudorabies is a disease that significantly impacts the swine industry. This disease is caused by Suid Herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), which is a double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Herpesviridae family and the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily and exhibits a slow rate of genetic evolution. The aim of this study was to use both full and partial sequences of SuHV-1 genes available in GenBank to examine the evolution and divergence of viruses isolated in different parts of the world. Partial and complete sequences of SuHV-1 genes were obtained either from GenBank (i.e., us6, us7, us8, us9, ul14, ul49.5, and ul44) or from genetic sequencing of Brazilian SuHV-1 samples. The results of this study corroborate previous phylogenetic studies of SuHV-1 that demonstrated different evolutionary profiles of isolates from different parts of the globe, with a rapid genetic dispersion of Chinese isolates. All of the phylogenetic trees generated in this study demonstrated a large genetic distance between SuHV-1 isolates from the Western and Eastern regions of the world. Antônio A. Fonseca Jr., Érica B. Sales, Marcos B. Heinemann, and Jenner K. P. Reis Copyright © 2014 Antônio A. Fonseca Jr. et al. All rights reserved. The Mre11 Cellular Protein Is Modified by Conjugation of Both SUMO-1 and SUMO-2/3 during Adenovirus Infection Mon, 07 Apr 2014 14:02:31 +0000 The adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 55 kDa and E4 Orf6 proteins assemble a Cullin 5-E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that targets, among other cellular proteins, p53 and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex for degradation. The latter is also inhibited by the E4 Orf3 protein, which promotes the recruitment of Mre11 into specific nuclear sites to promote viral DNA replication. The activities associated with the E1B 55 kDa and E4 Orf6 viral proteins depend mostly on the assembly of this E3-Ub ligase. However, E1B 55 kDa can also function as an E3-SUMO ligase, suggesting not only that regulation of cellular proteins by these viral early proteins may depend on polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation but also that SUMOylation of target proteins may play a key role in their activities. Since Mre11 is a target of both the E1B/E4 Orf6 complex and E4 Orf3, we decided to determine whether Mre11 displayed similar properties to those of other cellular targets, in Ad5-infected cells. We have found that during Ad5-infection, Mre11 is modified by SUMO-1 and SUMO-2/3 conjugation. Unexpectedly, SUMOylation of Mre11 is not exclusively dependent on E1B 55 kDa, E4 Orf6, or E4 Orf3, rather it seems to be influenced by a molecular interplay that involves each of these viral early proteins. Elizabeth Castillo-Villanueva, Grisel Ballesteros, Melanie Schmid, Paloma Hidalgo, Sabrina Schreiner, Thomas Dobner, and Ramon A. Gonzalez Copyright © 2014 Elizabeth Castillo-Villanueva et al. All rights reserved. HIV-1 Tropism Test Evaluation: Assessment and Clinical Implications Mon, 07 Apr 2014 11:33:41 +0000 CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokines receptors are critical coreceptors for the binding of HIV to specific host cells. Guidelines recommend its assessment in case of virological failure or before prescription of CCR5 inhibitors. Strategies to assess viral tropism may be divided into phenotypic and genotypic assays; registrative trials of CCR5 inhibitors used phenotypic assay, but recently genotypic ones have been used in clinical practice. The presence of CXCR4 is increasing in naïve patients, with both acute and chronic HIV-1 infections; this coreceptor usage is associated with CD4 depletion. The assessment of viral tropism should be considered in every stage of HIV-1 infection. Stefania Chiappetta, Manuela Pogliaghi, Marco Ripa, Adriano Lazzarin, Giuseppe Tambussi, and Silvia Nozza Copyright © 2014 Stefania Chiappetta et al. All rights reserved. Interaction of Hepatitis C Viral Proteins with Cellular Oncoproteins in the Induction of Liver Cancer Wed, 12 Mar 2014 10:20:37 +0000 Hepatitis C virus infection is a major health problem all over the world. A large proportion of patients infected by HCV develop liver cirrhosis or cancer. However, the mechanism(s) remain to be elucidated. Since HCV does not carry any known oncogene, it is thought that interaction between virally encoded proteins and host proteins is responsible for carcinogenesis. Many crucial interactions between HCV-encoded proteins and host proteins have been reported. In this review we focus on the interaction of viral proteins with important regulators of cell cycle—oncoproteins YB-1, p53, and cyclin D1—which play a major role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and genomic stability. Genetic variants of HCV accumulate in patients and alter these interactions of host cell proteins. It is a battle between the virus and host and the final outcome depends on the winner; if the host succeeds in clearing the virus the patient may not develop serious liver diseases. On the other hand, if the virus dominates by evolving quasispecies which code for altered proteins that interact differently with host proteins, or induce mutations in host protooncogenes, then the patient may develop liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. Ramareddy V. Guntaka and Mythili K. Padala Copyright © 2014 Ramareddy V. Guntaka and Mythili K. Padala. All rights reserved. In Silico Studies on Development of Novel Virostatic Agents against Bluetongue Virus Tue, 04 Mar 2014 08:13:54 +0000 The core of BTV is organized into three concentric structures of which VP7 protein forms the major core protein. The subcore consists of VP3 protein and the innermost part of the core is made of three minor proteins: VP1, VP4, and VP6. Earlier it was reported that core-like particles (CLPs) composed of viral VP7 and VP3 proteins were produced in order to study role of VP7 protein in intermolecular interactions in the BTV assembly process. Site specific mutational studies revealed that substitution of the single lysine residue of VP7 (Lys-255) by leucine abrogated CLP formation, indicating a critical role for this lysine. In the present study, homology modeling, mutagenesis, and docking studies were carried out in order to design potent leads in modulation of VP7 protein in abrogating CLP formation. Pandrangi Anupama Copyright © 2014 Pandrangi Anupama. All rights reserved. The Genomic and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolate WUH2 Sun, 23 Feb 2014 13:36:54 +0000 To fully understand the extent of genetic diversity and pathogenesis of the highly pathogenic PRRSV found in China, we determined the genomic sequence of PRRSV WUH2; the pathogenicity of WUH2 was compared to the classical PRRSV isolate CH-1a. Our results showed that the WUH2 genome had a discontinuous deletion of 30 aa in Nsp2, a 1 nucleotide deletion located in both the 5′ and 3′ UTRs, and point mutations within GP5. Experimental infection demonstrated that PRRSV WUH2 reproduced the phenotype and symptoms of porcine high fever syndrome. Importantly, we found that there were differences in viral burden in the serum and tissues when comparing infections of the pathogenic isolate WUH2 to those of the classical isolate CH-1a. These data provide insight into the genomic diversity and altered pathogenicity of Chinese PRRSV isolates and help elucidate the evolution and potential pathogenic mechanisms of PRRSV. Bin Li, Liurong Fang, Suyan Liu, Yunbo Jiang, Huanchun Chen, and Shaobo Xiao Copyright © 2014 Bin Li et al. All rights reserved. Construction and Characterization of Recombinant HSV-1 Expressing Early Growth Response-1 Wed, 12 Feb 2014 13:15:06 +0000 Early Growth response-1 (Egr-1) is a transcription factor that possesses a variety of biological functions. It has been shown to regulate HSV-1 gene expression and replication in different cellular environments through the recruitment of distinct cofactor complexes. Previous studies demonstrated that Egr-1 can be induced by HSV-1 infection in corneal cells but the level was lower compared to other cell types. The primary goal of this report is to generate a recombinant HSV-1 constitutively expressing Egr-1 and to investigate the regulation of viral replication in different cell types or in animals with Egr-1 overexpression. The approach utilized was to introduce Egr-1 into the BAC system containing complete HSV-1 (F) genome. To assist in the insertion of Egr-1, a gene cassette was constructed that contains the Egr-1 gene flanked by loxP sites. In this clone Egr-1 is expressed under control of CMV immediate-early promoter followed by another gene cassette expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the elongation factor 1α (EF-1 α) promoter. The constructed recombinant viruses were completed containing the Egr-1 gene within the viral genome and the expression was characterized by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Our results showed that Egr-1 transcript and protein can be generated and accumulated upon infection of recombinant virus in Vero and rabbit corneal cells SIRC. This unique virus therefore is useful for studying the effects of Egr-1 during HSV-1 replication and gene regulation in epithelial cells and neurons. Gautam Bedadala, Feng Chen, Robert Figliozzi, Matthew Balish, and Victor Hsia Copyright © 2014 Gautam Bedadala et al. All rights reserved. HPV Prevalence and Detection of Rare HPV Genotypes in Hong Kong Women from Southern China with Cytological Abnormalities Tue, 17 Dec 2013 12:02:53 +0000 Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the primary cause of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion and invasive cervical cancer. The emergence of various commercial HPV genotyping kits with different characteristics facilitates the detection of most high-risk and low-risk HPV genotypes, but the rare HPV types are usually underdiagnosed. In the present study, HPV detection was performed using the GenoFlow HPV Array Test kit (DiagCor Bioscience), which can identify 33 HPV subtypes by specific probes. Besides, a HPV consensus probe (universal probe) was designed to capture not only the 33 genotypes but also rare subtypes. Of the 1643 Southern Chinese women tested between 2012 and 2013, the HPV prevalence was 42.3%, with HPV 52 (139/1643, 8.5%), HPV 81 (89/1643, 5.4%), and HPV 16 (63/1643, 3.8%) being the most frequent subtypes detected. Among all 695 HPV-positive cases, 56 (8.1%) cases were only detected by the universal probe, in which 5 were either ASCUS or LSIL cases. Sequencing results confirmed HPV types 30, 91, and 74, and the intratypic variants of HPV 72 and 82 were present in the 5 cases. The result suggests that some rare HPV subtypes might be involved in cervical lesions. Ngai Na Chloe Co, Lai-On Chu, Joseph K. F. Chow, Joseph W. O. Tam, and Enders K. O. Ng Copyright © 2013 Ngai Na Chloe Co et al. All rights reserved. Electropherotypes and G-Types of Group A Rotaviruses Detected in Children with Diarrhea in Lagos, Nigeria Tue, 17 Dec 2013 11:11:35 +0000 Approximately over 500,000 children die annually due to severe dehydrating diarrhea caused by rotaviruses. This work investigated rotavirus infection among children less than 5 years with diarrhea in Lagos and determined the circulating electropherotypes and genotypes of the virus isolates. Three hundred and two () stool samples from children below 60 months were collected from different hospitals and health care centers in Lagos and subjected to enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to determine the presence of Group A rotavirus, RT-PCR to determine the G-types, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to determine the electropherotypes. The results show that 60.3% of the samples showed distinct rotavirus RNA migration pattern, having long electropherotypes (55.3%) of seven variations dominating over the short electropherotypes (44.5%). Six different G-types were detected (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, and G12). Serotypes G1 and G12 showed long electropherotypic pattern while G2, G3, and G9 exhibited either short or long electropherotype. All G4 detected show short electropherotypic pattern. In conclusion, information on the genomic diversity and RNA electropherotypes of rotaviruses detected in children with diarrhea in Lagos is reported in this study. Christianah Idowu Ayolabi, David Ajiboye Ojo, and George Enyimah Armah Copyright © 2013 Christianah Idowu Ayolabi et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Characterization of Begomoviruses and DNA Satellites Associated with a New Host Spanish Flag (Lantana camara) in India Sat, 07 Dec 2013 12:41:47 +0000 In the year 2010 yellowing of leaf vein disease was observed on Spanish Flag (Lantana camara) in Sirsa, Haryana province, India. There was no earlier report of association of begomovirus and DNA satellites with Lantana camara. Therefore, molecular characterization and understanding of the genomic analysis of begomovirus infecting Lantana camara is imperative for the pathogen diagnosis and disease management. This is the first report and molecular characterization of a begomovirus associated with its two satellites infecting a new host Lantana camara in India. Avinash Marwal, Anurag Kumar Sahu, and Rajarshi Kumar Gaur Copyright © 2013 Avinash Marwal et al. All rights reserved. No Evidence of Human Papillomavirus in Patients with Breast Cancer in Hong Kong, Southern China Thu, 19 Sep 2013 08:29:48 +0000 Several studies have suggested that viral oncogenesis is one of the etiologic factors of breast cancer, while others are provocative, however, their association remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is present in the blood and tissue samples of breast cancer patients in Hong Kong. A total of 102 patients with breast tumour tissues and adjacent normal tissues were available and recruited unselectively. Both DNA and RNA were extracted from those samples, and real-time quantitative PCR was performed to detect HPV-16, with 18 sequences targeting the E6 and L1 regions. Results showed that HPV DNA sequences were absent in all the blood and breast tissues. These data argue against the role of oncogenic HPV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Additional lines of evidence need to be obtained in order to assess the possibility of breast cancer prevention using HPV vaccines. Ava Kwong, Candy P. Leung, Vivian Y. Shin, and Enders K. O. Ng Copyright © 2013 Ava Kwong et al. All rights reserved. Immunogenicity of NS4b Dengue 3 Virus Mimotope Presented to the Immune System as Multiple Antigen Peptide System Thu, 29 Aug 2013 09:56:43 +0000 The availability of random peptide libraries displayed on bacteriophage (RPL) has provided a powerful tool for selecting sequences that mimic binding properties of natural antigen epitopes (mimotopes). These mimotopes can be used for vaccine design, drug development, and diagnostic assays. Several mimotopes have been shown to induce production of antibodies against the natural antigen. We have previously identified four dengue virus mimotopes from a phage-displayed peptide library using antidengue 3 human sera. Three of them showed similarity in their amino acid sequences with the NS4b proteins of dengue. Few studies have examined the role of NS4b proteins in the antibody response to dengue virus infection. A multiple antigen peptide (MAP) system was chemically synthesized containing this mimotope (NS4b MAP), and BALB/c mice were immunized to evaluate its immunogenicity. Antipeptide responses were induced and recognised DENV-3 infected cells as determined by immunofluorescence. The high levels of the IgG2a subtype against NS4bMAP suggest the induction of a Th1-like response. Our findings suggest that the NS4b mimotope might be a useful tool for the development of multiepitope diagnostic assays, dengue virus vaccine design, and pathogenesis studies. Nevis Amin, Maritza Pupo, Alicia Aguilar, Frank Camacho, Mayling Alvarez, Yamira Caballero, Daiyana Díaz, Angélica García, Osvaldo Reyes, María Guadalupe Guzmán, David I. Stott, and Armando Acosta Copyright © 2013 Nevis Amin et al. All rights reserved. A Comprehensive Study on the 2012 Dengue Fever Outbreak in Kolkata, India Wed, 07 Aug 2013 08:46:01 +0000 Background. Dengue viruses (DV) belong to the family Flaviviridae, with four serotypes referred to as DV-1, DV-2, DV-3, and DV-4. A large-scale outbreak of dengue fever occurred in 2012 involving several districts of West Bengal. Objective. To present a comprehensive picture of the dengue fever outbreak in 2012 and to identify the prevailing serotypes. Materials and Methods. Serum samples were collected from suspected dengue fever cases. Samples from fever cases <5 days duration were tested for dengue NS1 antigen employing Pan Bio (Australia) NS1 ELISA kit. Serum samples of ≥5 days fever were tested for dengue-specific IgM by MAC ELISA test kit prepared by the National Institute of Virology Pune, India. Serotyping of dengue samples was done by dengue-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results. The number of dengue cases in 2012 clearly outnumbered the dengue cases in 2010 and 2011. The majority of the cases were in the age group 11–30 years with a male preponderance. Outbreak occurred during the months of Aug.–Nov. indicating increased vector transmission in the monsoon and postmonsoon periods. The prevailing serotypes in this outbreak were Den1, Den3, and Den4. Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay, Indrani Bhattacharyya, Srima Adhikary, Jayshree Konar, Nidhi Dawar, Jayeeta Sarkar, Saiantani Mondal, Mayank Singh Chauhan, Nemai Bhattacharya, Anita Chakravarty, Asit Biswas, and Bibhuti Saha Copyright © 2013 Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay et al. All rights reserved. HIV-HBV Coinfection among Individuals Attending the ICTC of a Tertiary Care Hospital in West Bengal, India Thu, 01 Aug 2013 10:16:08 +0000 Background. Hepatitis B and HIV infections are serious global public health problems. Many of the countries with high HIV burden are also affected by high prevalence of hepatitis B infection, leading to frequent HIV/HBV coinfection. Seroprevalence study is important to assess the magnitude and dynamics of disease transmission and to decide the prevention and control strategy. There is limited data of seroprevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection in West-Bengal, India. Objective. To determine the seroprevalence of HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) positivity among HIV infected individuals attending an integrated counselling and testing centre (ICTC) attached to a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Materials and Methods. Serum samples collected over a period of 6 months from subjects attending the ICTC were screened for anti-HIV antibodies by using rapid card tests as per the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) protocol. Serum samples found to be reactive for HIV antibodies were tested for HBsAg by rapid card test. Results. The seroprevalence of anti-HIV antibody was 17.3%. Among these samples 8.3% were positive for HBsAg. Conclusion. A high prevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection among individuals attending the ICTC in this centre is a cause for concern and warrants urgent intervention. Jayeeta Sarkar, Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay, Runu Chakrabarty, Nemai Bhattacharya, Srima Adhikari, Saiantani Mondal, Anurita Mukherjee, and Subhasish Kamal Guha Copyright © 2013 Jayeeta Sarkar et al. All rights reserved. Japanese Encephalitis Virus Generated Neurovirulence, Antigenicity, and Host Immune Responses Thu, 18 Jul 2013 11:34:04 +0000 In response to a JE virus attack, infected body cells start secretion of different cytokines and activate innate immune response. Virus starts neuronal invasion by entering into nerve cells and inflecting the central nervous system. It avoids exposure of body’s natural immunity and generates neurotrophic effects. Virus causes acute susceptibility to CNS and establishes encephalitis syndrome that results in very high fatality in children. In survivors, JEV inhibits the growth and proliferation of NCPs and imposes permanent neuronal disorders like cognitive, motor, and behavioral impairments. However, body cells start TCR mediated interactions, to recognize viral antigens with class I MHC complex on specific target cells, and operate mass killing of virus infected cells by increased CTL activity. Thus, both cell mediated and antibody interactions plays a central role in protection against JEV. In the present review article virus generated neurovirulence, antigenicity, and host immune responses are described in detail. More emphasis is given on diagnosis, clinical care, and active immunization with well-designed potential antiflavivirus vaccines. Further, for achieving an elite success against JEV, global eradication strategies are to be needed for making vaccination program more responsible and effective in endemic areas. Ravi Kant Upadhyay Copyright © 2013 Ravi Kant Upadhyay. All rights reserved. Determination of Infectious Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Bovine Lung Lavages by a Combination of Virus Propagation in Cell Culture and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Thu, 20 Jun 2013 18:09:57 +0000 Material of bovine origin is often used in biotechnological applications. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the major viral contaminants, and not only detection and inactivation but also quantification of the viral load in bovine starting material is required by the regulatory agencies. Here, we investigated combined virus propagation in cell culture and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for the applicability to detect and estimate low BVDV titers in bovine lung lavages, the source material for manufacturing pulmonary surfactant. qRT-PCR analyses of the crude lung lavages were performed and qRT-PCR calibration curves based on infective viral doses (TCID50/mL) were generated with a detection limit of 100 TCID50/mL. Lung lavages were inoculated on susceptible MDBK cells and cell culture samples were again analyzed by qRT-PCR. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to prove qRT-PCR results. Interestingly, initial BVDV contaminations in lung lavages were below qRT-PCR detection limit. An amplification step in cell culture enabled BVDV propagation to levels detectable by qRT-PCR. In comparison with the qRT-PCR calibration curve and control experiments with defined inoculation doses, the estimation of minor BVDV contaminations in lung lavages was possible. Both techniques can be successfully combined to estimate the viral load in dilute sample material. Benjamin Zeitler and Ingrid Rapp Copyright © 2013 Benjamin Zeitler and Ingrid Rapp. All rights reserved. HSV-1 as a Model for Emerging Gene Delivery Vehicles Mon, 27 May 2013 09:48:52 +0000 The majority of viral vectors currently used possess modest cargo capability (up to 40 kb) being based on retroviruses, lentiviruses, adenoviruses, and adenoassociated viruses. These vectors have made the most rapid transition from laboratory to clinic because their small genomes have simplified their characterization and modification. However, there is now an increasing need both in research and therapy to complement this repertoire with larger capacity vectors able to deliver multiple transgenes or to encode complex regulatory regions, constructs which can easily span more than 100 kb. Herpes Simplex Virus Type I (HSV-1) is a well-characterized human virus which is able to package about 150 kb of DNA, and several vector systems are currently in development for gene transfer applications, particularly in neurons where other systems have low efficiency. However, to reach the same level of versatility and ease of use as that of smaller genome viral vectors, simple systems for high-titer production must be developed. This paper reviews the major HSV-1 vector systems and analyses the common elements which may be most important to manipulate to achieve this goal. Filip Lim Copyright © 2013 Filip Lim. All rights reserved. Conservation of the Nuclear Receptor Response Element in HIV-1 LTRs: A Possible PPAR Response Element? Sat, 18 May 2013 09:50:47 +0000 Infection with HIV-1 continues to be a threat to public health. Successful antiretroviral therapy has reduced the risk of developing AIDS but cannot fully eradicate the virus due to latent proviral sequences remaining in infected cells. The 5′-long terminal repeat (LTR) of HIV-1 is critical for the regulation of transcription of the viral RNA and subsequent production of new viral particles. Indeed, the regulation of transcription relies upon the binding of host cell transcription factors and associated regulatory proteins to the LTR. Recently, it has been found that the treatment of cells with ligands of a number of nuclear receptors (NRs) resulted in inhibition of HIV-1 replication. This inhibition likely occurs via effects on other proteins that bind to the 5′-LTR, notably NF-κB. Here, the possible binding site of one NR, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), in the HIV-1 5′-LTR is analysed within isolates of the virus. Given the high mutation rate of HIV-1, it is striking that this region remains conserved in more recent isolates from geographically distinct regions. This work provides a rationale for further study of the binding site recognised by PPAR in the HIV-1 5′-LTR. Tara Hurst Copyright © 2013 Tara Hurst. All rights reserved. Parvovirus B19 Achievements and Challenges Mon, 29 Apr 2013 14:51:46 +0000 Parvovirus B19 is a widespread human pathogenic virus, member of the Erythrovirus genus in the Parvoviridae family. Infection can be associated with an ample range of pathologies and clinical manifestations, whose characteristics and outcomes depend on the interplay between the pathogenetic potential of the virus, its adaptation to different cellular environments, and the physiological and immune status of the infected individuals. The scope of this review is the advances in knowledge on the biological characteristics of the virus and of virus-host relationships; in particular, the interactions of the virus with different cellular environments in terms of tropism and ability to achieve a productive replicative cycle, or, on the contrary, to establish persistence; the consequences of infection in terms of interference with the cell physiology; the process of recognition of the virus by the innate or adaptive immune system, hence the role of the immune system in controlling the infection or in the development of clinical manifestations. Linked to these issues is the continuous effort to develop better diagnostic algorithms and methods and the need for development of prophylactic and therapeutic options for B19V infections. Giorgio Gallinella Copyright © 2013 Giorgio Gallinella. All rights reserved. Human Herpesvirus 6 and Neuroinflammation Thu, 14 Mar 2013 09:43:26 +0000 Human herpesvirus (HHV-) 6A and HHV-6B are two distinct β-herpesviruses which have been associated with various neurological diseases, including encephalitis, meningitis, epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis. Although the reactivation of both viruses is recognized as the cause of some neurological complications in conditions of immunosuppression, their involvement in neuroinflammatory diseases in immunocompetent people is still unclear, and the mechanisms involved have not been completely elucidated. Here, we review the available data providing evidence for the capacity of HHV-6A and -6B to infect the central nervous system and to induce proinflammatory responses by infected cells. We discuss the potential role of both viruses in neuroinflammatory pathologies and the mechanisms which could explain virus-induced neuropathogenesis. Joséphine M. Reynaud and Branka Horvat Copyright © 2013 Joséphine M. Reynaud and Branka Horvat. All rights reserved. A Novel Human Membrane Protein Interacting with the Short Fiber of Enteric Adenovirus Sun, 09 Dec 2012 10:42:30 +0000 Human enteric adenoviruses of species F, HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 (Ad40 and Ad41), are associated with gastroenteritis in children. Ad attachment to the primary receptor on the cell surface is mediated by the distal head domain of the fiber protein, an antenna-like component of the adenovirus capsid. Differently from the majority of human Ads that possess one type of fiber on their capsid, the Ad40 and 41 have two distinct fibers. The long fiber recognizes the host membrane protein CAR, which permits virus attachment, but nothing is known about the role of the short fiber. Using the head domain of the Ad41 short fiber, we fished out a putative membrane protein that has never been previously described. This partner of the short fiber of enteric Ad41 (ParAd41) is a small, hydrophobic protein with three putative trans membrane domains, which interacts with the Ad41 short fiber but not with the Ad41 long fiber or with the fiber of respiratory Ad2 serotype. ParAd41 is localized in intracellular membranes including the nuclear membrane. Saturation of the short fiber with ParAd41 inhibits virus infectivity, which substantiates the putative role of ParAd41 in enteric Ads tropism. It is conceivable that the interaction of the short fiber with ParAd41 mediates virus postattachment endocytosis step as well as interaction with the nuclear membrane prior to the injection of viral DNA into the nucleus, thus enabling enteric adenovirus infection. This study is the first one to probe the molecular nature of enteric Ad41 tropism. Anne-Laure Favier, Renata Grzela, Siergiej Tcherniuk, Marianna Charlotte Harsi, and Jadwiga Chroboczek Copyright © 2013 Anne-Laure Favier et al. All rights reserved. The Pathogenesis of Alphaviruses Tue, 04 Dec 2012 11:27:36 +0000 Alphaviruses are enveloped single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses of the family Togaviridae. The genus alphavirus contains nine viruses, which are of medical, theoretical, or economic importance, and which will be considered. Sindbis virus (SINV) and Semliki Forest (SFV), although of some medical importance, have largely been studied as models of viral pathogenicity. In mice, SINV and SFV infect neurons in the central nervous system and virulent strains induce lethal encephalitis, whereas avirulent strains of SFV induce demyelination. SFV infects the developing foetus and can be teratogenic. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus, and Western Equine Encephalitis virus can induce encephalitis in horses and humans. They are prevalent in the Americas and are mosquito transmitted. Ross River virus, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and O’nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) are prevalent in Australasia, Africa and Asia, and Africa, respectively. ONNV virus is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes, while the other alphaviruses are transmitted by culicine mosquitoes. CHIKV has undergone adaptation to a new mosquito host which has increased its host range beyond Africa. Salmonid alphavirus is of economic importance in the farmed salmon and trout industry. It is postulated that future advances in research on alphavirus pathogenicity will come in the field of innate immunity. Gregory J. Atkins Copyright © 2013 Gregory J. Atkins. All rights reserved. Molecular Signaling and Cellular Pathways for Virus Entry Tue, 04 Dec 2012 08:35:20 +0000 The cell signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular processes and is often manipulated by viruses as they rely on the functions offered by cells for their propagation. The first stage of their host life is to pass the genetic materials into the cell. Although some viruses can directly penetrate into cytosol, in fact, most virus entry into their host cells is through endocytosis. This machinery initiates with cell type specific cellular signaling pathways, and the signaling compounds can be proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. The activation can be triggered in a very short time after virus binds on target cells, such as receptors. The signaling pathways involved in regulation of viral entry are wide diversity that often cross-talk between different endocytosis results. Furthermore, some viruses have the ability to use the multiple internalization pathways which leads to the regulation being even more complex. In this paper, we discuss some recent advances in our understanding of cellular pathways for virus entry, molecular signaling during virus entry, formation of endocytic vesicles, and the traffic. Pei-I Chi and Hung-Jen Liu Copyright © 2013 Pei-I Chi and Hung-Jen Liu. All rights reserved. Virus and Antibody Diagnostics for Swine Samples of the Dominican Republic Collected in Regions Near the Border to Haiti Thu, 13 Sep 2012 14:04:11 +0000 The Dominican Republic (DR) and Haiti share the island of Hispaniola, and reportable transboundary animal diseases have been introduced between the two countries historically. Outbreaks of severe teschovirus encephalomyelitis in pigs began occurring in Haiti in February 2009, and a field and laboratort study in April 2010 indicated that the teschovirus disease is prevalent in many regions in Haiti including areas near the border with DR and that other viral disease agents, including CSF virus (CSFV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and swine influenza virus (SIV), are present in the swine population in these regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the introduction of teschovirus encephalomyelitis from Haiti to DR and to identify the other viral disease agents present in the swine population in regions of DR near the border with Haiti. Six of 7 brains and 6 of 7 spinal cords collected from pigs with central nervous system (CNS) signs were positive in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for PTV. Genome sequencing on the Dominican PTV and phylogenetic analysis on the polyprotein of PTV strains indicate that the sequence of the Dominican PTV is 99.1% identical to the Haitian isolate and closely related to other PTV-1 strains in the world. Among 109 serum samples tested, 65 (59.6%) were positive for antibodies to PCV-2, and 51 (46.8%) were positive for antibodies to CSFV. Fifty-four of the 109 serum samples were tested for antibodies to other agents. Among the 54 samples, 20 (37.0%) were seropositive to PTV-1, 17 (31.5%) tested seropositive to SIV H3N2, 12 (22.2%) were seropositive to SIV H1N1, and 1 (1.9%) was seropositive to PRRSV. A. Ventura, W. Gonzalez, R. Barrette, S. Swenson, A. Bracht, J. Rowland, A. Fabian, K. Moran, F. Mohamed, E. O'Hearn, M. Jenkins-Moore, D. Toms, J. Shaw, P. Morales, D. Pyburn, C. Carrillo, G. Mayr, M. McIntosh, and M. Deng Copyright © 2013 A. Ventura et al. All rights reserved.