ISRN Zoology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Diversity of Hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) Communities in Different Habitat Types in Zanjan Province, Iran Wed, 22 Jan 2014 11:45:19 +0000 The diversity of hoverfly communities was studied in four different habitat types (river side, woodland, fruit garden, and rice field) in the years of 2008 and 2009. Adult hoverflies were collected from different habitants in Zanjan province. A total of 31 species with 750 individuals of hoverflies were collected, among which Sphaerophoria scripta (Linnaeus), Eristalis arbustorum (Linnaeus) and Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus) were found to be the most abundant. Records from these four sites were used in the diversity analysis. The results indicated that river side and rice field showed the highest and lowest degree of species richness and species diversity. Also, river side and rice field showed the highest and lowest species evenness, respectively. Masumeh Naderloo and Shahrokh Pashaei Rad Copyright © 2014 Masumeh Naderloo and Shahrokh Pashaei Rad. All rights reserved. Red-Eared Slider Turtles Lack Response to Immunization with Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin but Have High Levels of Natural Antibodies Sun, 29 Dec 2013 13:54:28 +0000 While the specific humoral response of reptiles is slow and does not typically increase in titer or binding affinity upon secondary immunization, reptiles produce polyreactive natural antibodies (NAbs) that have low binding affinity and are produced in the absence of antigen stimulation. Given the poor specific response, NAbs may be an important protective resource in reptiles. In order to investigate the relative contributions of natural and specific antibodies, we immunized turtles with the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). We did not detect an increase in antibody titers. However, preimmunization titers to KLH, as well as to a series of other novel antigens, were high in the turtles, indicating a strong NAb response. Interestingly, we found an age-associated increase in NAb titers in adults. Overall, our data suggest that reptiles may use NAbs as part of a strong innate immune response rather than relying on slower specific humoral responses. Laura M. Zimmerman, Rachel M. Bowden, and Laura A. Vogel Copyright © 2013 Laura M. Zimmerman et al. All rights reserved. A Review on Animal Hybridization’s Role in Evolution and Conservation: Canis rufus (Audubon and Bachman) 1851—A Case Study Tue, 10 Dec 2013 11:31:54 +0000 Canis rufus is an example of animal whose conservational needs have been questioned because of its possible hybrid status. Control of hybridization has been defended and done in the wild to theoretically save the species. However, control of hybridization may not be the solution. Hybridization may be a phenomenon misconceived by many modern evolutionary biologists, and conservation guidelines over control on anthropogenic impacts may need revisions in order to respect the new perspectives on hybridization’s role in evolution. The term “cladogamy” is being proposed to substitute “hybridization” and to refer to the crossing between two any given clades, due to difficulties from scientists and eventual arbitrary means of separating species from lower taxa. Rodrigo Vargas Pêgas Copyright © 2013 Rodrigo Vargas Pêgas. All rights reserved. The Response of Gray Treefrogs to Anesthesia by Tricaine Methanesulfonate (TMS or MS-222) Thu, 14 Nov 2013 19:00:07 +0000 The design of anesthetic protocols for frogs is commonly hindered by lack of information. Results from fishes and rodents do not always apply to frogs, and the literature in anurans is concentrated on a few species. We report on the response of treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) to tricaine methanesulfonate. Body mass did not differ significantly between the species or between sexes. In the first exposure of a frog to TMS, variation in induction time was best explained by species (H. chrysoscelis resisted longer) and body mass (larger animals resisted longer). Multiple exposures revealed a strong effect of individual variation on induction time and a significant increase of induction time with number of previous anesthesia events within the same day. Recovery time was mostly explained by individual variation, but it increased with total time in anesthetic and decreased with induction time. It also increased with number of days since the last series of anesthesias and decreased with number of previous uses of the anesthetic bath. This is one of the first studies of anesthesia in hylids and also one of the first assessments of the factors that influence the variability of the response to anesthesia within a species. Mary Paduano, Kaitlen C. Colafrancesco, Sarah A. Wong, Michael S. Caldwell, and Marcos Gridi-Papp Copyright © 2013 Mary Paduano et al. All rights reserved. Out of Asia: An Allopatric Model for the Evolution of the Domestic Dog Tue, 08 Oct 2013 13:07:01 +0000 The domestication of the dog has been a ripe area of evolutionary speculation for more than 150 years. A wolf ancestry and probable East Asian origin of domestication are now widely accepted. We offer a new allopatric hypothesis for the domestication of dogs that recognizes the importance of isolation in the speciation of the dog from the wolf. Although sympatric isolation during domestication of many other species would not have been problematic, it has always been difficult to keep dogs from breeding with wild canids. Furthermore, wild canids readily hybridize with one another. This would have made it very difficult for an early domestic dog lineage to diverge from the wolf and to evolve into the morphologically, developmentally, and behaviorally distinct species that we recognize today. Our allopatric model is consistent with two subhypotheses: isolation when tamer scavenger wolves followed humans south and away from hunting populations of wolves or isolation when climate forced humans and tamer scavenger wolves into isolated refugia. Stan Braude and Justin Gladman Copyright © 2013 Stan Braude and Justin Gladman. All rights reserved. Haematological Response of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) Fingerlings Exposed to Different Concentrations of Tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) Leaf Dust Tue, 17 Sep 2013 13:47:50 +0000 The present study set out to investigate the haematological effects of tobacco leaf dust on African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fingerlings, with a mean weight of 3.01 ± 1.25 g using “static renewal bioassay system” during a 120-hour bioassay exposure period. Water quality parameters such as pH and dissolved oxygen significantly decreased while total alkalinity and conductivity increased significantly in the exposed media, compared to the control test. Leucocytes counts increased significantly while erythrocytes counts decreased significantly with increasing concentration of tobacco dust. Packed cell volume significantly reduced with increase in the concentration of tobacco dust. Haematological examination showed that there was destruction of the erythrocytes production, and the concentration of haemoglobin was much lower in the exposed fish compared to the control depicting an anaemic condition. The results could provide baseline information for the safe limits of using tobacco leaf dust in fish ponds; hence 1.56 g L−1 concentration of tobacco leaf dust was recommended for pond preparation for Clarias gariepinus fingerling stocking. For better survival rates, the fish should only be introduced in the pond after three days of tobacco application. Safina M. Musa, Christopher Mulanda Aura, Erick Ochieng Ogello, Reuben Omondi, Harrison Charo-Karisa, and Jonathan Mbonge Munguti Copyright © 2013 Safina M. Musa et al. All rights reserved. Phylogenetic Relationships among Populations of the Vineyard Snail Cernuella virgata (Da Costa, 1778) Thu, 12 Sep 2013 09:32:34 +0000 Cernuella virgata (Da Costa, 1778) (Mollusca: Hygromiidae), commonly known as the “vineyard snail,” is endemic species in Mediterranean and Western Europe including the British Isles, but in the Eastern USA and Australia it represents an introduced invasive species. The present work examines the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships among the four populations of this land snail sampled along the east Adriatic region of Croatia using mitochondrial markers (partial 16S rDNA and COI gene) in addition to traditional methods of shell’s shape analysis. All the three molecular-phylogenetic approaches (median joining haplotype network analysis and Bayesian analysis, as well as maximum likelihood analysis) revealed two-three major subnetworks for both 16S rDNA and COI, with a clear distinction between south Adriatic haplotypes (Pisak) and north Adriatic haplotypes (Krk and Cres). The population from Karlobag was comprised of both north and south haplotypes, thus representing a putative contact zone between these two groups. The morphometric analysis showed that individuals from Cres island population were statistically significantly wider and higher than individuals from Pisak population. Analysis of the SW/SH ratio and the relationship between shell width and shell height showed no differences in shell growth between the two examined populations, indicating equal shell growth and shape, which gives the possibility that differences in size of individuals between those two populations could be influenced by biotic (physiological) or abiotic (environmental) factors. This study represents the first analysis of genetic variability and relatedness among native populations of C. virgata. Jasna Puizina, Sanja Puljas, Željana Fredotović, Ivica Šamanić, and Grgur Pleslić Copyright © 2013 Jasna Puizina et al. All rights reserved. Studies on the Food and Feeding Habits of Swamp Deer (Rucervus duvaucelii duvaucelii) in Jhilmil Jheel Conservation Reserve, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India Sat, 24 Aug 2013 09:19:45 +0000 Food habits of the swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii duvaucelii) were studied in and around Jhilmil Jheel Conservation Reserve (JJCR), Uttarakhand, for two years. This population (320 in number) was recently rediscovered in the state (2005) and warranted an ecological study because the habitat around this study area is heavily fragmented due to expansion of agriculture, habitation, and various other land use practices. Therefore, this study was initiated by the major objective of studying seasonal variation in food habits of swamp deer. Proportionate food consumption was studied using feeding quadrat method. The study reveals that the overall diet of swamp deer consisted mainly of graminoids (grasses and sedges) and herbs (terrestrial and aquatic). In the protected areas studied earlier, the swamp deer habitat was dominated by grasses, and hence they were reported to be predominantly a grazer who occasionally fed on aquatic plants (Schaller 1967 and others). In contrast, at Jhilmil, the area also has equal presence of other plant types namely, sedges and terrestrial herbs. This resulted in polyphagous feeding habit of animal here. R. Tewari and G. S. Rawat Copyright © 2013 R. Tewari and G. S. Rawat. All rights reserved. Change of Plasma Chemistry Values in Captive Breeding Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta) Thu, 18 Apr 2013 13:18:38 +0000 Loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, have been laying eggs in an indoor artificial beach since 1995, at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium (PNPA). Two males and four females were mated and those four landed and laid eggs several times during the breeding period in 1996. In 1998 egg laying was observed from April to July and mating was one or two months prior to the nesting season. Blood samples from these individuals were collected monthly in the previously mentioned years in order to investigate the changes in sex steroid hormones (testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone). Moreover, blood chemistry values (total protein, albumin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, total calcium, and inorganic phosphorus) were investigated. In 1998, for the two males, changes in testosterone levels were additionally examined. Blood chemistry values of each turtle changed periodically as sex steroids did based on the breeding period and laying cycle. Data from a completely artificial environment such as the one at the PNPA provide elucidation of the reproductive physiology in these endangered species. Yuka Kakizoe, Ken Sakaoka, Yuichiro Akune, Yoshihiko Kanou, Tomomi Saito, and Itaru Uchida Copyright © 2013 Yuka Kakizoe et al. All rights reserved. A New Species of Tarantula Spider in the Genus Lyrognathus Pocock 1895 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from Sumatra Wed, 17 Apr 2013 17:39:51 +0000 A new species is described in the tarantula genus Lyrognathus Pocock 1895, being the first record of this taxon from Sumatra, Indonesia. Lyrognathus giannisposatoi sp. nov. is also unique in its habitat selection, being the first confirmed lowland species from this genus. A new key to Lyrognathus species is provided, and a biogeography of the group is briefly discussed. Steven C. Nunn and Rick C. West Copyright © 2013 Steven C. Nunn and Rick C. West. All rights reserved. Short-Term Memory of the Amplitude of Body Rotation in Orienting Behavior of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) Tue, 26 Mar 2013 15:04:17 +0000 African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) can orient its body toward the prey by analyzing the direction of approaching water waves. Xenopus accurately orients toward the source of the stimulus when the stimulus is generated several cm away from its body. However, although Xenopus orientation behavior fluctuates when the stimulus is generated very near or above its body, the amplitude of the body rotation in the orienting behavior was affected by the preceding orienting behavior that had been performed several seconds before. In particular, the amplitude of the rotation in response to the stimulus applied above the body was positively correlated with that of the preceding rotation behavior in response to a stimulus generated several cm away from the body, indicating that Xenopus tends to repeat the preceding behavior if the direction of the stimulus is ambiguous. The results presented show the evidence that Xenopus can retain the amplitude of the rotation of the preceding orienting behavior for several seconds. Gouki Okazawa and Shintaro Funahashi Copyright © 2013 Gouki Okazawa and Shintaro Funahashi. All rights reserved. The Abundance and Biting Patterns of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Culicidae) in the Coastal Region of Nigeria Wed, 20 Mar 2013 15:06:07 +0000 This study was aimed at determining the abundance and biting patterns of Culex quinquefasciatus in the coastal region of Nigeria. Collections were done by human landing catch and by CDC miniature light traps from September 2005 to August 2006. A total of 3798 C. quinquefasciatus females were collected. The highest number of females was caught in the month of August and it represented nearly a quarter (24.0%) of the total females collected. In all, 38.8% of females dissected were parous. The abundance of C. quinquefasciatus followed the pattern of rainfall with the population starting to expand at the onset of the rains. The highest increase was found after the temperature had peaked. The mean of biting was 3.2 times more in the rainy season than in the dry season, whereas the transmission potential was higher in the dry season. C. quinquefasciatus is presently regarded as a biting nuisance having no significant epidemiological importance yet. Efforts at its control should be intensified before it is too late. Emmanuel C. Uttah, Gloria N. Wokem, and Christiana Okonofua Copyright © 2013 Emmanuel C. Uttah et al. All rights reserved. Population Dynamics of Horse Mackerel (Trachurus Mediterraneus Ponticus) in the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast Tue, 19 Mar 2013 13:14:20 +0000 The horse mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus is a commercially important pelagic fish species in the Black Sea fishery. The present investigation was carried out between May and December 2010 along the Bulgarian coast of the Black Sea. Population parameters of horse mackerel from the trawl and fishing nets catches were estimated from length frequency data, by using ELEFAN-I computer program. The ELEFAN-I analysis gave the following Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) parameters: the asymptotic length  cm, growth coefficient value was , and the hypothetical age at which length is zero was . Based on these growth parameters, the total mortality coefficient () during the study period was estimated to be 2.99. The estimated value for natural mortality () was 1.08; hence, the fishing mortality coefficient () was 1.91. The estimated value for the exploitation rate () using the length converted catch curve was 0.64. The estimated sizes of T. mediterraneus at 25, 50, and 75 percent probabilities of capture were 16.80 cm, 18.72 cm, and 20.64 cm, respectively. Maria Yankova Copyright © 2013 Maria Yankova. All rights reserved. Extinctions of Late Ice Age Cave Bears as a Result of Climate/Habitat Change and Large Carnivore Lion/Hyena/Wolf Predation Stress in Europe Thu, 14 Mar 2013 13:47:59 +0000 Predation onto cave bears (especially cubs) took place mainly by lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss), as nocturnal hunters deep in the dark caves in hibernation areas. Several cave bear vertebral columns in Sophie’s Cave have large carnivore bite damages. Different cave bear bones are chewed or punctured. Those lets reconstruct carcass decomposition and feeding technique caused only/mainly by Ice Age spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea, which are the only of all three predators that crushed finally the long bones. Both large top predators left large tooth puncture marks on the inner side of cave bear vertebral columns, presumably a result of feeding first on their intestines/inner organs. Cave bear hibernation areas, also demonstrated in the Sophie’s Cave, were far from the cave entrances, carefully chosen for protection against the large predators. The predation stress must have increased on the last and larger cave bear populations of U. ingressus (extinct around 25.500 BP) in the mountains as result of disappearing other seasonally in valleys migrating mammoth steppe fauna due to climate change and maximum glacier extensions around 22.000 BP. Cajus G. Diedrich Copyright © 2013 Cajus G. Diedrich. All rights reserved. Paramonostomum bubaki n. sp. (Digenea: Notocotylidae) from the Black Coot, Fulica atra (Gruiformes: Rallidae), in South Central Pakistan Tue, 12 Mar 2013 15:39:28 +0000 During a helminthological survey of black coot, Fulica atra (Gruiformes: Rallidae), in Sindh Province of Pakistan, eight specimens of undescribed species of trematode belonging to genus Paramonostomum Lühe, 1909 were recovered from large intestine of the single host bird. Paramonostomum bubaki n. sp. differs from its congeners except P. macrovesiculum Dharejo et al., 2006 by having less attenuated anterior end, a pharynx, a bifurcal genital pore, a longer posttesticular space, a Y-shaped excretory vesicle, number of uterine loops (16), and large size of filamentous eggs. P. bubaki n. sp. resembles P. macrovesiculum Dharejo et al., 2006 collected from Fulica atra from Pakistan by having a pharynx but differs in larger body, smaller esophagus, a bifurcal genital pore, shape of cirrus sac, seminal vesicle and gonads, ceca reaching posterior extremity, and a longer posttesticular space. Nadir Ali Birmani, Ali Murtaza Dharejo, Shagufta Naz, Muhammad Munif Khan, and Abdul Manan Shaikh Copyright © 2013 Nadir Ali Birmani et al. All rights reserved. Long-Distance Animal Migrations in the Oceanic Environment: Orientation and Navigation Correlates Mon, 14 Jan 2013 08:53:08 +0000 A large variety of marine animals migrate in the oceanic environment, sometimes aiming at specific targets such as oceanic islands or offshore productive areas. Thanks to recent technological developments, various techniques are available to track marine migrants, even when they move in remote or inhospitable areas. The paper reviews the main findings obtained by tracking marine animals during migratory travels extending over large distances, with a special attention to the orientation and navigation aspects of these phenomena. Long-distance movements have now been recorded in many marine vertebrates, revealing astonishing performances such as individual fidelity to specific sites and basin-wide movements directed towards these locations. Seabirds cover the longest distances, sometimes undertaking interhemispheric flights, but transoceanic migrations are also the rule in pelagic fish, turtles, pinnipeds, and whales. Some features of these journeys call for the involvement of efficient orientation and navigational abilities, but little evidence is available in this respect. Oceanic migrants most likely rely on biological compasses to maintain a direction in the open sea, and displacement experiments have provided evidence for an ability of seabirds and turtles to rely on position-fixing mechanisms, possibly involving magnetic and/or olfactory cues, although simpler navigational systems are not to be excluded. Paolo Luschi Copyright © 2013 Paolo Luschi. All rights reserved. Pathological and Parasitological Findings in South American Fur Seal Pups (Arctocephalus australis) in Uruguay Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:50:14 +0000 This paper presents the necropsy findings in South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) pups from Uruguayan colonies. Animals () were aged between 0 and 18 months old. From 0 to 6 months, 69.4% of the pups showed a poor body condition, while 68.8% of animals from 7 to 18 months had fair-to-good body condition. From 6 to 7 months of age, the stomach content included fishes, crustaceans, and foreign bodies. Starvation in the first months of life and traumatic lesions in pups older than 9 months were the most frequent causes of death. Uncinaria spp. was the only parasite found in the small intestine between 0 and 6 month-old pups. Parasites with indirect cycle (Contracaecum spp., Corynosoma sp., Tetrabothriidae) were present from 6 months of age as well as the first report of the nematode Strongyloides spp. in pinnipeds. Orthohalarachne spp. was found in the respiratory tract. Mycobacterium pinnipedii was isolated from 9 animals without gross pathological lesions. Other pathological conditions were found in lesser extent. This information contributes to the main causes of death of A. australis pups at different ages and could be useful to perform further health studies on this wild pinniped species. Helena Katz, Diana Morgades, and Miguel Castro-Ramos Copyright © 2012 Helena Katz et al. All rights reserved. A New Species of Genus Anelpistina and the Second Described Nicoletiid (Zygentoma: Insecta) Species from the Mayan Ruins of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico Sun, 02 Dec 2012 13:27:40 +0000 Recent studies on the American nicoletiid insects (“silverfish”) of the subfamily Cubacubaninae have shown that the group is more species rich than previously recognized. It has become common to find that a single locality is inhabited by more than one species of nicoletiid. In previous studies, a species from genus Squamigera had been described from the rainforest surrounding the Mayan ruins of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico. We report here the presence of two more species of nicoletiids in the same locality and we describe here a new species of genus Anelpistina. DNA sequence data and morphology are provided to differentiate these species. Luis Espinasa, Emily Collins, and Kimberly Socci Copyright © 2012 Luis Espinasa et al. All rights reserved. Biomass Composition of Blue Mussels, Mytilus edulis, is Affected by Living Site and Species of Ingested Microalgae Mon, 26 Nov 2012 10:28:40 +0000 We have investigated changes in specific contents of protein, glycogen and lipid, and fatty acids of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, under different conditions in the field and in laboratory feeding experiments using different microalgae. Specific contents of glycogen and lipid increased in mussels relocated to net bags at a location in Kerteminde Bay (Great Belt, Denmark) in contrast to mussels relocated to a location in Sallingsund (Limfjorden, Denmark). The polyunsaturated fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, reached 3 times higher values in the mussels in Kerteminde Bay. Mussels fed pure cultures of Crypthecodinium cohnii, which is rich in the polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and glycogen, gained the highest specific contents of this fatty acid and glycogen. Mussels feeding on the most protein rich of the microalgae, Bracteacoccus sp., gained the highest protein contents. The specific glycogen content of the mussels was influenced by their “condition” (body dry weight/shell length ratio) while specific protein and lipid contents were not. Starvation affected mainly the specific glycogen content. These results show that biomass composition of blue mussels is affected by living site and local phytoplankton species and that the fatty acids composition of mussels reflects the content of fatty acids in the diet. Daniel Pleissner, Niels Thomas Eriksen, Kim Lundgreen, and Hans Ulrik Riisgård Copyright © 2012 Daniel Pleissner et al. All rights reserved. First Reproductive Observations for Herpele Peters, 1880 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Herpelidae): Evidence of Extended Parental Care and Maternal Dermatophagy in H. squalostoma (Stutchbury, 1836) Sun, 25 Nov 2012 08:15:34 +0000 An adult (presumably female) Herpele squalostoma was found attending 16 young in Cameroon. Four young that were preserved one day after collection have multicusped teeth and skin-like material in their gut. The adult and remaining young were maintained in captivity without provision of food for one month. During this period the young gained more than 10% in mass. Twenty-nine days after collection one additional young was preserved, this has adult-like dentition. We conclude that H. squalostoma resembles the oviparous caecilians Boulengerula taitanus and Siphonops annulatus in having young that receive extended parental care and that remove and eat the stratum corneum of maternal skin using specialized deciduous teeth. This discovery matches a prediction that maternal dermatophagy is widespread (and homologous) among teresomatan caecilians. Marcel T. Kouete, Mark Wilkinson, and David J. Gower Copyright © 2012 Marcel T. Kouete et al. All rights reserved. Would Mothers Relax Their Degree of Selectivity for Supports Suitable for Egg-Laying When the Local Density of Conspecific Females Increases? A Case Study with Three Common Lepidopteran Leaf Miners Tue, 20 Nov 2012 13:21:29 +0000 Selecting suitable supports for egg-laying, among host species and host individuals, as well as between leaves of various qualities within a preferred host, is a major component of prehatching maternal care in herbivore insects. This feature is especially important for those species having a tightly concealed larval stage, such as leaf miners. Yet, increasing density of neighbouring conspecific females may possibly induce ovipositing mothers to relax their degree of selectivity, so as to distribute their eggs more evenly among host leaves and reduce the risk of future scramble competition between larvae within a same leaf. We test this hypothetical prediction for three common leaf-mining moths: Phyllonorycter maestingella, Phyllonorycter esperella, and Tischeria ekebladella. The prediction was supported by none of the three tested species. This suggests that, in these tiny insect species, mothers are either unable to account for the local density of neighbouring conspecific females and/or they have no effective motivation to react accordingly. In addition, this also suggests that host individuals differing by the average quality of their leaves yet exert no differentiated attractivity towards mothers at a distance. In turn, this emphasizes the role of contingent factors in the patterns of spatial distribution of insects' densities. Jean Béguinot Copyright © 2012 Jean Béguinot. All rights reserved. Light-Trap Catch of the Harmful Moths Depending of Moonlight in North Carolina and Nebraska States of USA Mon, 19 Nov 2012 12:32:14 +0000 The present study discusses the light trapping of harmful insects depending on the moonlight, its polarized percentage, and the moon phases. The trapping data were taken from light traps of North Carolina and Nebraska States of USA. We examined five species. The maximum individual number of species was collected at new moon or near the first quarter and last quarter. The farmers can use our results to forecast their plant protecting works. László Nowinszky and János Puskás Copyright © 2012 László Nowinszky and János Puskás. All rights reserved. Coloration of Anuran Tadpoles (Amphibia): Development, Dynamics, Function, and Hypotheses Wed, 14 Nov 2012 11:38:40 +0000 Colorations of anuran tadpoles surely function in many of the same ways that have been ascribed to color and pattern in other animals, but the paucity of data forces one to look to other groups to generate hypotheses. Such an action often occurs because of the difficulty of defining specific fitness parameters to larval forms. The commonly muted colorations of tadpoles are typically considered to function only in some form of crypsis, but we discuss other functions in the particular context of behavioral ecology and changes induced by various kinds of coinhabitants. We review the development, terminology, diversity, and functions of coloration in tadpoles and then pose various questions for future research. We strongly support a broad-based perspective that calls for an integration of several fields of research. Giselle Thibaudeau and Ronald Altig Copyright © 2012 Giselle Thibaudeau and Ronald Altig. All rights reserved. Impact of Snow Storms on Habitat and Death of Yunnan Snub-Nosed Monkeys in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China Wed, 24 Oct 2012 13:39:36 +0000 Natural disasters such as snow storms have far-reaching effects on variations in the habitat structure and ecological aspects of non-human primates. Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) inhabit high-altitude forest and endure harsh winters. The effect of heavy snow-storms (January 19 to February 6, 2008) on two large groups of R. bieti (Gehuaqing group and Xiangguqing group) inhabiting Samage Forest in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve were assessed. Data on habitat damage were collected between March and May 2008 via field line sampling. The snow storms destroyed 237 big trees in the Samage Forest. The destroyed trees were mostly located along the mountain ridge and valley including Abies georgei, Tsuga dumosa, Pinus yunnanensis and Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon. These trees were important for R. bieti as they provide a dietary source of lichen that is a critical winter fallback food for this primate species, and consequently food availability for R. bieti was reduced. Our results also showed that two juveniles in the Gehuaqing group and three juveniles in the Xiangguqing group were found deceased following the storms. The fact indicates that R. bieti is well adapted to high altitude and strongly seasonal habitat might explain its resilience to heavy snow storms. Dayong Li, Baoping Ren, Jie Hu, Yongsheng Shen, Xinming He, Ali Krzton, and Ming Li Copyright © 2012 Dayong Li et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Identification and Ecology of a Newly Discovered Population of Sun Catfish Horabagrus brachysoma from Northern Western Ghats of India Mon, 22 Oct 2012 08:34:16 +0000 Horabagrus brachysoma, thought to be endemic to the southern parts of the Western Ghats of India, is recorded for the northern parts of the Western Ghats, extending the species distribution range by 180 km. We have confirmed the identity of the species and the fact that the species is indigenous to this area and not an artifact of recent introductions using molecular methods. Apart from the range extension we have also provided detailed analysis regarding the nature of morphometric variations between the sexes, length-weight relationship, and a brief discussion about the potential habitat requirements and threats to this species. By documenting the possible threats to this threatened and endemic species, we have commented on the possible measures to conserve the species in the wild. Unmesh Katwate, Rupesh Raut, Mayura Khot, Mandar Paingankar, and Neelesh Dahanukar Copyright © 2012 Unmesh Katwate et al. All rights reserved. Organ-Tissue Level Model of Resting Energy Expenditure Across Mammals: New Insights into Kleiber's Law Wed, 26 Sep 2012 10:13:15 +0000 Background. Kleiber’s law describes the quantitative association between whole-body resting energy expenditure (REE, in kcal/d) and body mass (M, in kg) across mature mammals as REE . The basis of this empirical function is uncertain. Objectives. The study objective was to establish an organ-tissue level REE model across mammals and to explore the body composition and physiologic basis of Kleiber’s law. Design. We evaluated the hypothesis that REE in mature mammals can be predicted by a combination of two variables: the mass of individual organs/tissues and their corresponding specific resting metabolic rates. Data on the mass of organs with high metabolic rate (i.e., liver, brain, heart, and kidneys) for 111 species ranging in body mass from 0.0075 (shrew) to 6650 kg (elephant) were obtained from a literature review. Results. predicted by the organ-tissue level model was correlated with body mass (correlation ) and resulted in the function , with a coefficient and scaling exponent, respectively, close to 70.0 and 0.75 () as observed by Kleiber. There were no differences between and calculated by Kleiber’s law; was correlated () with . The mass-specific , that is, , was correlated with body mass () with a scaling exponent −0.246, close to −0.25 as observed with Kleiber’s law. Conclusion. Our findings provide new insights into the organ/tissue energetic components of Kleiber’s law. The observed large rise in REE and lowering of REE/M from shrew to elephant can be explained by corresponding changes in organ/tissue mass and associated specific metabolic rate. ZiMian Wang, Junyi Zhang, Zhiliang Ying, and Steven B. Heymsfield Copyright © 2012 ZiMian Wang et al. All rights reserved. Swift Foxes and Ideal Free Distribution: Relative Influence of Vegetation and Rodent Prey Base on Swift Fox Survival, Density, and Home Range Size Sun, 12 Aug 2012 10:31:07 +0000 Swift foxes (Vulpes velox) are an endemic mesocarnivore of North America subject to resource and predation-based pressures. While swift fox demographics have been documented, there is little information on the importance of top-down versus bottom-up pressures or the effect of landscape heterogeneity. Using a consumable resource-based ideal free distribution model as a conceptual framework, we isolated the effects of resource-based habitat selection on fox population ecology. We hypothesized if swift fox ecology is predominantly resource dependant, distribution, survival, and space use would match predictions made under ideal free distribution theory. We monitored survival and home range use of 47 swift foxes in southeastern Colorado from 2001 to 2004. Annual home range size was 15.4 km2, and seasonal home range size was 10.1 km2. At the individual level, annual home range size was unrelated to survival. Estimates of fox density ranged from 0.03 to 0.18 foxes/km2. Seasonal survival rates were 0.73 and 1.0 and did not differ seasonally. Foxes conformed to the predictions of the ideal free distribution model during winter, indicating foxes are food stressed and their behavior governed by resource acquisition. During the rest of the year, behavior was not resource driven and was governed by security from intraguild predation. Craig M. Thompson and Eric M. Gese Copyright © 2012 Craig M. Thompson and Eric M. Gese. All rights reserved. The Effect of Three Different Feed Types on Growth Performance and Survival of African Catfish Fry (Clarias gariepinus) Reared in a Hatchery Tue, 31 Jul 2012 11:16:15 +0000 African catfish Clarias gariepinus is cultured as food fish, used to control overpopulation in tilapia ponds, and is grown as baitfish for the Lake Victoria Nile Perch fishery. Since the demand for Clarias gariepinus fingerlings is high, many farmers wish to specialize in fingerling production. In this study, the performance of three dietary feed types: freshwater rotifers with Artemia nauplii, freshwater rotifers with fish meal, and freshwater rotifers with maize bran, on the growth performance of African catfish fry, were done in a hatchery and they were raised in 9 glass tanks for a period of 21 days. Pearson’s correlation showed no relationship (𝑟=0.1; 𝑃>0.05) between growth and water quality parameters, but indicated a strong relationship between survival rate and total length between treatments (𝑟=0.85; 𝑃=0.02). Mean total length (TL) after 21 days were (A=15.003), (B=12.964), and (C=11.90) in mm for Treatments A, B, and C, respectively. Treatment A had the highest specific growth rate (SGR) of 6.475% day 1 followed by B (5.5320% day−1) and C (4.960% day−1). Results from this study demonstrate that after the 7 days of feeding using rotifers, Artemia is the best feed for increasing growth of Clarias gariepinus. Safina M. Musa, Christopher Mulanda Aura, Charles Chege Ngugi, and Rodrick Kundu Copyright © 2012 Safina M. Musa et al. All rights reserved. Seasonality of Fruit-Feeding Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) in a Brazilian Semiarid Area Wed, 25 Jul 2012 10:46:08 +0000 A survey of 6,000 trap/hours using fruit-bait traps was conducted, in order to characterize the community of fruit-feeding butterflies and their seasonal variation in a semiarid area of NE Brazil, which exhibits a highly seasonal rainfall regime. The community was composed of 15 species, the four most abundant comprising more than 80% of the total individuals. In the first sampling month, 80% of the species had already been recorded. A strong positive correlation was found between butterfly abundance and precipitation of the sampled year. The highly seasonal pattern of the studied community may be related to the availability of both larvae and adult food resources. The endemic Fountainea halice moretta presented the highest positive correlations with other butterfly species and with total butterfly abundance and illustrates well the seasonal variation of the whole community. Hamadryas februa was the only species trapped in all sampling months, probably due to the ability of adults to aestivate during the dryer months. The open and more disturbed sample area showed higher abundance of butterflies in the rainy season and lower abundance in the dry season. Both abundance and richness were affected by season in a manner that the rainy period had significantly more individuals and species. Carlos Eduardo Beserra Nobre, Luciana Iannuzzi, and Clemens Schlindwein Copyright © 2012 Carlos Eduardo Beserra Nobre et al. All rights reserved. Amount of Plant Foods Eaten and Sexual Differences in Feeding among Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of Kanyawara Community Tue, 24 Jul 2012 09:11:55 +0000 The amount of plant foods eaten and sexual differences in food intake among chimpanzees in Kibale Forest was investigated between July 2007 and January 2008. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to collect data on the diet, number, and duration of feeding bouts of 18 individuals of the Kanyawara chimpanzee community. Chimpanzees utilized 42 plant species for fruits, leaves, and piths. Among plant parts eaten, fruits contributed the greatest percentage of fresh weight (18) in the diets compared to leaves (5.1) and piths (3.6). The duration of feeding bouts varied, ranging from 1.5 to 45.8 minutes. When Mimusops bagshawei fruits were eaten, the numbers of feeding bouts per chimpanzee per day were high compared to when they were not. While our study agrees with previous studies that females spend more time feeding per day, it shows that the long feeding time among females does not translate to increased food weight. We suggest that the social role of females in taking care of the young and their attention being taken up by this role while feeding and fears associated with male presence is the reason for long feeding time among females. Moses Chemurot, Gilbert Isabirye-Basuta, and Eric Sande Copyright © 2012 Moses Chemurot et al. All rights reserved.