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ISRN Ecology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 130289, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/130289
Review Article

Fungicide: Modes of Action and Possible Impact on Nontarget Microorganisms

1Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, AAFC, Swift Current, SK, Canada S9H 3X2
2Department of Food and Bioproducts Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5N8

Received 26 July 2011; Accepted 5 September 2011

Academic Editors: K. Muylaert and H. Sanderson

Copyright © 2011 Chao Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Fungicides have been used widely in order to control fungal diseases and increase crop production. However, the effects of fungicides on microorganisms other than fungi remain unclear. The modes of action of fungicides were never well classified and presented, making difficult to estimate their possible nontarget effects. In this paper, the action modes and effects of fungicides targeting cell membrane components, protein synthesis, signal transduction, respiration, cell mitosis, and nucleic acid synthesis were classified, and their effects on nontarget microorganisms were reviewed. Modes of action and potential non-target effects on soil microorganisms should be considered in the selection of fungicide in order to protect the biological functions of soil and optimize the benefits derived from fungicide use in agricultural systems.