Table 1: Action mode and possible nontarget effects of fungicides.

Action modeFungicide chemical groupCommon nameNontarget effects

Lipid, sterol, and other membrane componentsLipidAromatic hydrocarbonsDicloranMutagen to Salmonella typhimurium [12]
EtridiazoleRetards nitrification by affecting ammonium oxidizers [13]
Sterol    TriazolesTriadimefonLong-term inhibiting effects on soil bacterial community [7]
TriticonazoleIncreases total number of bacteria in soil [15]
Cinnamic acid amideDimethomorphImpacts nitrifying and ammonifying bacterial activities in sandy soils [17]
TriazoleHexaconazoleImpacts bacterial activities related to N cycling [19]
MorpholineFenpropimorph Inhibit general bacterial activity in wetland [16]
TriazolePropiconazole
TebuconazoleMay retard plant-growth-promoting effects of Azospirillum brasilense on its hostplant [20]
Intracellular membrane componentsHydrochlorideAcriflavineThickens peripheral and cross cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus [18]

Amino acid and protein synthesis      Glucopyranosyl antibioticStreptomycinInhibits amino acid synthesis in bacteria [3] and is neurotoxic to amphibian [4]
Tetracycline antibioticOxytetracyclineAlso used as bactericide [21]

Signal transduction     PhenylpyrrolesFludioxonilToxic to algae [22] and potential risk to prokaryotes [23]
DicarboximidesIprodioneAffects signal transduction in bacteria [24]
VinclozolinInhibits total bacterial growth [25]

RespirationNADH oxido-reductase (Complex I) inhibitorsPyrimidinaminesDiflumetorimUnknown
Succinate-dehydrogenase (Complex II) inhibitorsPyridine carboxamidesBoscalidMay affect growth of prokaryotes [26]
BenzamidesFlutolanil
Gxathiin carboxamidesCarboxinInhibits denitrifying bacterial activity in wetland sediment [16]
Oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers2,6-dinitroanilinesFluazinamHave a potential risk to environmental microorganisms [27]
Dinitrophenyl crotonateDinocapInhibits ammonifying bacterial activity and stimulate general bacterial respiration in soil [28]

Mitosis and cell divisionInhibitor of spindle microtubules assemblyMethyl benzimidazole carbamateBenomylMay affect nitrifying bacteria [29] and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [30]
CarbendazimReduces the diversity of soil bacteria [31]
PhenylureaPencycuronMay affect metabolically activated soil bacteria in short term [32]

Nucleic acids synthesisRNA polymerase I inhibitorsAcylalaninesMetalaxylAffects activities of ammonifying and nitrifying bacteria in soil [33]
OxazolidinonesOxadixylUnknown
Adenosin-deaminase inhibitorsHydroxypyrimidinesEthirimolUnknown

PhthalonitrileChlorothalonilImpacts bacterial activities related to N cycling [29]
Multisite activityDithiocarbamateMancozebImpacts bacterial activities related to nitrogen cycling [17] and carbon cycling [28] in soils
PhthalimideCaptan Inhibits denitrifying bacterial activity [16]
DithiocarbamateThiram
AnthraquinoneDithianonReduces bacterial diversity in soil [34]
CopperCopper sulfateReduces the number of bacteria and streptomycetes in sandy soil [35]