Table 2: Cytokine and cytokine receptor expression in the respiratory epithelium and submucosa.

Cytokines and receptorsAtopic asthmaNonatopic asthma

Th1γ IFN (sputum)++++ [39]
IL-2 (BAL fluid)+++ [38]
IL-2R+++ [38]

Th2IL-4++ +/−++ [8]
IL-4α receptor++++ [8]
IL-5++ +/−++ [8]
IL-5α receptor++++ [8]
IL-10 (sputum)+++ [40]
IL-13++++ [37]
GMCSF++++ [37, 39]

Th1 & Th2IL3++++ [37]

MacrophageGMCSFR-α++++ [22]