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ISRN Allergy
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 405813, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/405813
Research Article

Th2 Cytokine Levels Distort the Association of IL-10 and IFN- 𝛾 with Allergic Phenotypes

1School of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Western Australia, GPO Box D184, Perth, WA 6840, Australia
2Telethon Institute for Child Health Research and UWA Centre for Child Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Western Australia, GPO Box D184, Perth, WA 6840, Australia

Received 3 November 2011; Accepted 28 November 2011

Academic Editors: D. C. Cara and B. F. Gibbs

Copyright © 2011 Guicheng Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The expression of allergic phenotypes involves complex inter-relationships among several Th2 and Th1 cytokines as well as the regulator cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. These direct or indirect interrelationships may distort the true associations of cytokine responses with these phenotypes. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of the regulatory cytokine IL-10 and Th1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN- 𝛾 ) on allergic phenotypes after adjusting for the correlations with Th2 cytokines. After adjusting for Th2 cytokines, IL-10 and IFN- 𝛾 were protective against atopy. Adjusted levels of IL-10 and IFN- 𝛾 stimulated with house-dust mite (HDM) were significantly lower in atopics than non-atopics, for IL-10 adjusting for IL-5 ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 2 ), IL-13 ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 1 2 ), IL-9 ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 1 6 ), and IL-4 ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 4 3 ), and for IFN- 𝛾 adjusting for IL-5 ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 5 ), IL-13 ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 5 ), and IL-9 ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 3 7 ). IL-10 and IFN- 𝛾 levels stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) exhibited a similar pattern. The adjusted levels of IL-10 and IFN- 𝛾 stimulated with HDM, PHA or SEB were all significantly negatively correlated with total serum IgE, except for IFN- 𝛾 stimulated with SEB. Levels of Th2 cytokines distort the associations of IL-10 and IFN- 𝛾 with allergic phenotypes. Removing the covariance with Th2 cytokines, both IL-10 and IFN- 𝛾 were protective against atopy.