Table 4: Signs and symptoms of invading IP, classified by site of invasion.

Intracranial InvasionSymptomsSigns

Anterior cranial fossa via
the cribriform plate
Anosmia or symptoms related to
displacement of the globe
Anosmia, proptosis

Orbital involvementProptosis, periorbital swelling,
epiphora, diplopia, blurred vision,
trigeminal paresthesias, trismus,
retroorbital pain and visual loss, or
complain of facial numbness
Impaired ocular mobility, anesthesia
or hypesthesia of the infraorbital,
sphenopalatine, or greater palatine
nerves

Inferior extension into
the oral cavity
Painful loose teeth, poorly fitting
dentures, mass in the oral cavity,
swelling of cheek, nose, or around the
eye.
Oral cavity mass on the palate, upper
Alveolus, or upper gingivobuccal sulcus
or with malocclusion or loose teeth