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ISRN Nanotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 234216, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/234216
Review Article

Raman Spectroscopy in Graphene-Based Systems: Prototypes for Nanoscience and Nanometrology

Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 26 August 2012; Accepted 16 September 2012

Academic Editors: W. Lu and M. Tommasini

Copyright © 2012 Ado Jorio. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to characterize the different types of sp2 carbon nanostructures, including two-dimensional graphene, one-dimensional nanotubes, and the effect of disorder in their structures. This work discusses why sp2 nanocarbons can be considered as prototype materials for the development of nanoscience and nanometrology. The sp2 nanocarbon structures are quickly introduced, followed by a discussion on how this field evolved in the past decades. In sequence, their rather rich Raman spectra composed of many peaks induced by single- and multiple-resonance effects are introduced. The properties of the main Raman peaks are then described, including their dependence on both materials structure and external factors, like temperature, pressure, doping, and environmental effects. Recent applications that are pushing the technique limits, such as multitechnique approach and in situ nanomanipulation, are highlighted, ending with some challenges for new developments in this field.