- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 247072, 10 pages
Toxicity Assessment of Expired Pesticides to Green Algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata
1Toxicology, International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology (IIBAT), Padappai, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu 601301, India
2Bio-organic Chemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Adayar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600 020, India
Received 26 August 2012; Accepted 1 October 2012
Academic Editors: F. Fernández-Piñas and G. J. McBean
Copyright © 2012 G. Satyavani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- A. M. Raj and K. Ravichandran, “Study of soil microflora indicating pesticide contamination of Cauvery River belt in India,” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 80–82, 2010.
- S. S. Sexton, Z. Lei, and D. Zilberman, “The economics of pesticides and pest control,” International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 271–326, 2007.
- B. S. Hundal, Anand, and S. Ramandeep, “Pesticide marketing: the Indian scenario,” ICFAI Journal of Managerial Economics, vol. 4, pp. 32–37, 2006.
- K. H. Kabir, M. A. Rahman, M. S. Ahmed, M. D. H. Prodhan, and M. W. Akon, “Determination of residue of Diazinon and Carbosulfan in Brinjal and Quinalphos in Yard Long Bean under supervised field trial,” Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 503–513, 2008.
- PAN UK, “Pesticide and poverty, a case study on trade and utilization of Pesticides in Tanzania: implication to Stockpiling,” Agenda for Environment and Responsible Development, Final Report, Tanzania, 2006.
- A. A. Khooharo, A study of public and private sector pesticide extension and marketing services for cotton crop [Ph.D. thesis], Sindh Agriculture University, Sindh, Pakistan, 2008.
- P. K. Shetty, M. Murugan, and K. G. Sreeja, “Crop protection stewardship in India: wanted or unwanted,” Current Science, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 457–464, 2008.
- Srilankamirror, “Hayleys change labels of expired pesticides,” 2011, http://www.srilankamirror.com/old/english/the-news/5518-hayleys-change-labels-of-expired-pesticides.
- Guardian News Bureau, “RBYF seizes expired pesticides,” vol. 22, no. 92, Rni Regd. no. 40948/90, The Meghalaya Guardian, Shillong, India, 2011.
- Mansa, “Booked for selling expired pesticides,” TheTribune, R. Chengappa Ed., Chandigarh, India, 2002, http://www.tribuneindia.com/2002/20021130/punjab1.htm.
- M. Modise, “The status of obsolete pesticides in Botswana and strategies to prevent future accumulations,” in Proceedings of the OECD-FAO-UNDP Workshop, Alexandria, Va, USA, September 2000.
- P. A. N. Nigeria, “Strategic Assessment of the Status of POPs Pesticides Trading in South Western Nigeria,” Pesticides Action Network (PAN) Nigeria project, Nigeria, Anglophone, Africa, 2007.
- N. Jayashree, “Are pesticides turning into poison spray?” Times of India, 2010, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/pollution/Are-pesticides-turning-into-poison-spray/articleshow/6569529.cms.
- C. S. Ram, “Obsolete pesticdes stockpiles in Nepal and Its environmental impact,” Tech. Rep., Forum for Protection of Public Interest, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2002.
- P. A. N. UK, “Pesticide use, accumulations and impacts: a case study in the Rift Valley, Ethiopia,” Environment and Social Assessment International, 2006, http://www.pan-uk.org/archive/Projects/Obsolete/Pesticide%20Use%20Accumulation%20and%20Impacts.pdf,.
- US EPA, National Pesticide Survey-Summary, Washington, DC, USA, 1990.
- A. Mwandia and T. Eloise, “Obsolete pesticides in Africa—raising awareness of social and environmental implications,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Pesticide Use in Developing Countries: Environmental Fate, Effects and Public Health Implications, pp. 1–8, 2008.
- S. Bista, S. Aryal, and R. Maharjan, “Pesticide stock inventory and possible contamination in Nepal,” in Proceedings of Inception Workshop Implementation of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Enabling Activities in Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal, January 2004.
- A. K. Cetin and N. Mert, “Growth rate of Scenedesmus acutus (Meyen) in cultures exposed to trifluralin,” Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 631–633, 2006.
- “The importance of addressing the problem of obsolete pesticide stocks. Country guidelines,” FAO pesticide disposal series 11, Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2010, ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y2566e/y2566e00.pdf.
- A. El Jay, “Toxic effects of organic solvents on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Selenastrum capricornutum,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 191–198, 1996.
- G. F. Lee and L. A. Jones, “Agriculturally related water quality problems in the San Joaquin River,” Resource Management, Water Quality, Agriculture, Track 3, pp. 324–340, 2006.
- J. B. Belden, R. J. Gilliom, J. D. Martin, and M. J. Lydy, “Relative toxicity and occurrence patterns of pesticide mixtures in streams draining agricultural watersheds dominated by corn and soybean production,” Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 90–100, 2007.
- OECD, “Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),” in Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, no. 201, 2006.
- BCPC, The Pesticide Manual, BCPC, 13th edition, 2003.
- West Inc. and G. Dave, “TOXSTAT,” Version 3.5, University of Wyoming, Wyo, USA, 1996.
- G. Satyavani, R. A. Gopi, S. Ayyappan, P. Balakrishnamurthy, and P. Neelakanta Reddy, “Toxicity effect of expired pesticides to freshwater fish, Labeo rohita,” The Journal of Agriculture and Environment, vol. 12, pp. 1–9, 2011.
- K. Jamil, G. P. Das, A. P. Shaik, S. S. Dharmi, and S. Murthy, “Epidemiological studies of pesticide-exposed individuals and their clinical implications,” Current Science, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 340–345, 2007.
- A. Ambrus, D. J. Hamilton, H. A. Kuiper, and K. D. Racke, “Significance of impurities in the safety evaluation of crop protection products (IUPAC technical report),” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 75, no. 7, pp. 937–973, 2003.
- A. Sanyal and P. Dureja, “Isolation and identification of impurities in technical quinalphos,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 40, pp. 2013–2015, 1992.
- D. J. Hamilton, A. Ambrus, R. M. Dieterle et al., “Regulatory limits for pesticide residues in water (IUPAC technical report),” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 75, no. 8, pp. 1123–1155, 2003.
- S. J. Larson, P. D. Capel, and M. S. Majewski, “Analysis of key topics-environmental significance,” in Pesticides in Surface Waters. Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors, R. J. Gilliom, Ed., vol. 3 of Pesticides in the Hydrologic System, chapter 6, U.S. Geological Survey, National Water Quality Assessment Program, Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, Mich, USA, 1997.
- W. J. Allender and J. Keegan, “Determination of chlorpyrifos and its major breakdown products in technical formulations,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 313–319, 1991.
- B. Shen and S. Qi, “Pesticide Pollution,” Journal of Environment Sciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 31–47, 1991.
- G. W. Stratton, “Effects of the herbicide atrazine and its degradation products, alone and in combination, on phototrophic microorganisms,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 35–42, 1984.
- W. Battaglin and J. Fairchild, “Potential toxicity of pesticides measured in midwestern streams to aquatic organisms,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 95–103, 2002.
- J. Miller, M. Miller, K. Larsen, V. deVlaming, and P. G. Green, “Identification of causes of Algal Toxicity in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta,” Report Prepared for Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, Sacramento, Calif, USA, AQUA-Science, Davis, Calif, USA, 2002.
- J. L. Miller, M. J. Miller, K. L. Larsen, V. deVlaming, P. G. Green, and T. M. Young, “Identification of causes of Algal Toxicity in Sacramento-San Joaquin Watershed (California, USA),” in Toxicity Reduction and Toxicity Identifications (TIE) For Effluents, Ambient Waters and Other Aqueous Media, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2003.