Table 1: Study subject baseline characteristics.

Age (median, interquartile range/IQR)48.5 (32–56)
Male sex13 (43%)
Race (self-described)
 White19 (63%)
 Black10 (33%)
 Hispanic1 (3%)
Pain location
 Abdominal/flank11 (37%)
 Chest13 (43%)
 Extremity injury4 (13%)
 Headache1 (3%)
 General1 (3%)
Initial pain score (median, IQR)7 (4–9)
Triage-to-bed time in minutes (median, IQR)7 (1–13)