Table 1: System parameters.

SymbolQuantityValue

𝑅 𝑚 Armature resistance ( Ω ) 2.6
𝐾 𝑚 Motor back-EMF constant ( V r a d / S ) 0.00767
𝐾 𝑡 Motor torque constant ( N M / A ) 0.00767
𝐽 A r m Total arm inertia ( k g m 2 ) 0.0035
𝐽 e q Equivalent inertia ( k g m 2 ) 0.0026
𝐾 𝑔 High gear ratio14:5
𝐾 s t i Joint stiffness1.2485
𝐵 e q Equivalent viscous damping ( N . M . S / r a d ) 0.004
𝜂 𝑔 Gearbox efficiency0.9
𝜂 𝑚 Motor efficiency0.69