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ISRN Hematology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 310596, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/310596
Review Article

Thrombotic Microangiopathies

Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/Stem Cell Transplant, Children’s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA

Received 9 April 2012; Accepted 10 June 2012

Academic Editors: G. Lucarelli and B. Wachowicz

Copyright © 2012 Mohamed Radhi and Shannon L. Carpenter. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Thrombotic microangiopathy results from thrombotic occlusion of the microvasculature leading to fragmentation of red blood cells, profound thrombocytopenia, and a microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with elevation of lactate dehydrogenase and negative direct Coomb’s test. This constellation of clinical and laboratory findings is not due to one disease entity; rather, it represents a variety of underlying diagnoses. Among the major disease entities are TTP/HUS, which can be congenital or acquired, bacterial infections, medications, vascular or endothelial pathology like Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon, and stem cell transplantation. In this paper, we offer a review of some of the major causes of thrombotic microangiopathy.