Table 4: Average parameters of two classes of swarm-based predator-prey models that were found using Particle Swarm Optimization (rounded to two decimal places).

Phenotypeαβγδ | 𝑝 i n i t | | 𝑃 i n i t | steps

Figure 7(a)0.380.130.640.18432.63317.13132.63
Figure 7(b)0.760.300.690.20436.44330.64119.26