Table 2: Treatment of anorectal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

TreatmentSample sizeDurationDesignResultsResponse rateReferences

Biofeedback393 monthsProspective seriesImprovement of constipation and incontinence scores46 % [22]
134 monthsProspective seriesPatient rating of biofeedback success positive: 𝑛 = 5 38 % [11]
182–6 monthsProspective seriesPatient reported symptom improvement: 𝑛 = 8 44 % [15]

Abdominal massage308 weeksRTCIncrease in defecation frequency for week 4 only; improved composite constipation scores weeks 4 and 8[14]

Transanal irrigation25n/aRetrospective seriesPatient reported improvement: 𝑛 = 1 0 40 % [37]
10n/aRetrospective seriesPatient reported improvement: 𝑛 = 5 50%[20]