Table 1

CytokineExpression
mRNAProtein

Proinflammatory
 IL-1 ++
 TNF++
 Lymphotoxin+±
 IL-6++
 GM-CSF++
 M-CSF++
 LIF++
 Oncostatin M++
 IL-12++
 IL-15++
 IFN ++
 IFN +±
 IL-17++
 IL-18++

Immunoregulatory
 IL-2+±
 IL-4±
 IL-10++
 IL-11++
 IL-13++
 TGF ++

Chemokines
 IL-8++
 Gro ++
 MIP-1++
 MCP-1++
 ENA-78++
 RANTES++

Growth factors
 FGF++
 PDGF++
 VEGF++

Cytokines expressed in synovial tissue from patients with RA. Adapted from [55].