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ISRN Botany
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 653796, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/653796
Research Article

Starch Granule and Protein Accumulation during Seed Development of Ginkgo biloba L.

1College of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
2College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China

Received 21 September 2012; Accepted 24 October 2012

Academic Editors: M. Adrian, J. F. Gutierrez-Marcos, and S. Satoh

Copyright © 2012 Biao Jin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We investigated starch and protein formation and accumulation in the seed of Ginkgo biloba L. In the testa, starch granules and protein bodies (PBs) started to form and accumulate 30 days after pollination; they decreased in size and completely disappeared before maturity. In the endosperm, starch granules began to accumulate 45 days after pollination, and the number and size of starch granules increased gradually within 65 days after pollination. Starch granules, which were mainly produced in plastids, proliferated mainly by constricting in the center and dividing to form smaller granules. Before harvest, there were ellipsoidal or irregularly shaped types, including A-type starch granules and some B- and C-type starch granules. In addition, PBI and PBII formed mainly in the outermost cells of the endosperm. However, the starch granules and protein bodies in endosperm cells around the embryo disappeared completely. The embryo cells contained many organelles, C-type starch granules, and PBI-type protein bodies. These results suggested that the starch granules were A-, B-, and C-types, and the protein bodies were PBI- and PBII-types in G. biloba. In addition, there were many significant differences in the formation, accumulation, and types of starch granules and protein bodies among the testa, endosperm, and embryo.