- About this Journal ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 658508, 5 pages
Characterization, Acid Activation, and Bleaching Performance of Ibeshe Clay, Lagos, Nigeria
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos 101017, Nigeria
Received 23 December 2011; Accepted 11 January 2012
Academic Editor: P. Weisbecker
Copyright © 2012 M. A. Usman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- K. Baranowsky, W. Beyer, G. Billek et al., “Technologies for industrial processing of fats and oils,” European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, vol. 103, pp. 505–551, 2001.
- L. L. Richardson, “Use of bleaching, clays, in processing edible oils,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 777–780, 1978.
- A. O. Oboh, O. C. Aworhi, and O. K. Agagu, “The use of Nigerian clays in vegetable oil refining: evaluation of some Nigerian clays as potential bleaching earths,” Nigerian Food Journal, vol. 5, pp. 42–51, 1987.
- D. F. Valenzuela and S. P. De Souza, “Studies on the acid activation of Brazilian smectitic clays,” Quimica Nova, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 345–353, 2001.
- L. H. Wiedermann, “Degumming, refining and bleaching soybean oil,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 159–166, 1981.
- “Young’s Corporation, User’s Guide of Activated Clay,” http://www.youngscorp.com/.
- D. A. Morgan, D. B. Shaw, M. J. Sidebottom, T. C. Soon, and R. S. Taylor, “The function of bleaching earths in the processing of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 292–299, 1985.
- F. D Snell and L. S. Ettre, Enclopedia of Industrial Chemical Analysis, Interscience, London, UK, 1969.
- ISO, “Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils—Determination of Iodine Value,” British Standard number 3961, 1999.
- Z. Wu, C. Li, X. Sun et al., “Characterization, acid activation and bleaching performance of bentonite from Xinjiang,” Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 253–258, 2006.
- D. W. Breck, Zeolite Molecular Sieve Structure, Chemistry and Uses, Wiley Inter Science, New York, NY, USA, 1974.
- K. M. M. Motlagh, A. Z. Rigi, and A. A. Yuzbashi, “To Evaluate an Acid Activated Bentonite from Khorasani (Iran) for Use as a Bleaching Clay, IUST International,” Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 83–87, 2008.
- S. Arfaoui, N. Frini-Srasra, and E. Srasra, “Modelling of the adsorption of the chromium ion by modified clays,” Desalination, vol. 222, no. 1-3, pp. 474–481, 2008.
- D. D. Brooks, “Bleaching Factors that Affect the Oil Loss,” in Proceedings of the PORIM International Palm Oil Congress (Chemistry and Technology), pp. 45–51, 1999.