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ISRN Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 682168, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/682168
Review Article

CD200:CD200R-Mediated Regulation of Immunity

Departments of Surgery and Immunology, University Health Network and The Toronto Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L7

Received 22 October 2012; Accepted 14 November 2012

Academic Editors: R. Orentas and P. Puccetti

Copyright © 2012 Reginald M. Gorczynski. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The type 1 membrane glycoprotein CD200, widely expressed on multiple cells/tissues, uses a structurally similar receptor (CD200R1), whose expression is more restricted to cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, to transmit signals affecting responses in multiple physiological systems. Thus CD200 expression is reported to exert effects on cancer growth, autoimmune and allergic disorders, infection, transplantation, bone development and homeostasis, and reproductive biology. It was initially thought, based on the idea that CD200R1 was mostly expressed on cells of myeloid origin, that CD200:CD200R1 interactions were primarily dedicated to controlling myeloid cell function. However additional members of the CD200R family have now also been identified, although their function(s) remain unclear, and CD200R1 itself is now known to be expressed by subsets of T cells and other cells. Together these observations add layers of complexity to our understanding of CD200-related regulation. In common with a number of physiological systems, the mechanism(s) of CD200-induced signaling seem to fit within a similar framework of opposing actions of kinases and phosphatases. This paper highlights the advances in our knowledge of immunoregulation achieved following CD200:CD200R interaction and the potential clinical applicability of that information.