Table 5: Variables assessed by city of birth for all infants studied and for BPD cases.

CharacteristicsBogotá 𝑁 = 8 8 Cali 𝑁 = 7 9 Bucaramanga 𝑁 = 4 5
All infantsBPD 𝑛 = 4 4 RR, 95% CIAll infantsBPD 𝑛 = 1 4 RR, 95% CIAll infantsBPD 𝑛 = 6 OR, 95% CI 𝑃

Maternal and infant baseline characteristics
 Maternal age, mean ± (SD)27.7 (6.2)27.8 (6.5)1.00 (0.98; 1.02)27.4 (6.4)26.6 (5.6)1.00 (0.98; 1.01)26.4 (7.0)23.8 (5.9)0.99 (0.98; 1.01)0.6607
 Antenatal steroids, 𝑛 (%)75 (87.2)38 (50.7)1.15 (0.84; 1.58)71 (89.9)12 (16.9)0.92 (0.70; 1.22)38 (84.4)6 (15.8)1.17 (0.89; 1.53)<0.0001
 Preterm premature rupture of membranes (%)34 (38.6)17 (50.0)0.99 (0.80; 1.24)32 (40.5)9 (28.1)1.19 (1.01; 1.41)10 (22.2)4 (40.0)1.41 (1.13; 1.75)0.1918

Gender, 𝑛 (%)
 Female45 (51.1)21 (46.7)139 (49.4)7 (17.9)120 (45.5)2 (10.0)10.0018
 Male43 (48.9)23 (53.5)1.07 (0.87; 1.32)40 (50.6)7 (17.5)1.00 (0.84; 1.18)24 (54.5)4 (16.7)1.07 (0.87; 1.32)0.0004
Gestational age at birth, wPMA, mean ± (SD)29.0 (1.3)29.0 (1.3)0.99 (0.91; 1.07)29.4 (1.4)28.8 (1.5)0.95 (0.89; 1.00)29.1 (1.2)28.2 (0.8)0.92 (0.85; 1.00)0.0527
Birth weight, grams, mean ± (SD)1285.6 (290)1231.4 (261)1.00 (1.00; 1.00)1273.2 (286)1170.4 (267)1.01 (0.97; 1.06)1255.0 (264)1064.2 (261)1.00 (1.00; 1.00)0.0380
SGA, 𝑛 (%)4 (4.6)2 (50.0)1.00 (0.60; 1.66)5 (6.3)1 (20.0)1.02 (0.72; 1.45)3 (6.7)0 (0.00)0.87 (0.58; 1.30)0.5450
Apgar score 5 min, median (IR)9 (8-9)9 (8-9)1.08 (0.97; 1.19)8 (8-9)8 (8-9)0.94 (0.85; 1.03)9 (8-9)8 (7–9)0.95 (0.87; 1.04)0.6286
SNAP-II, mean ± (SD)5.6 (8.4)5.9 (8.7)1.00 (0.99; 1.02)5.5 (9.1)4.7 (8.8)1.00 (0.99; 1.01)6.2 (9.5)12.3 (14.0)1.01 (1.00; 1.02)0.8534

Respiratory management variables in the first 7 days of life
Ventilatory support 𝑛 (%)
 nCPAP only70 (79.5)30 (42.9)154 (68.4)2 (3.7)138 (84.4)5 (13.2)1<0.0001
 nCPAP + MV18 (20.5)14 (77.8)1.42 (1.10; 1.82)25 (31.6)12 (48.0)1.56 (1.33; 1.82)7 (15.6)1 (14.3)1.01 (0.76; 1.34)0.0117
F I O 2 (median values)0.590.611.52 (1.03; 2.24)0.460.431.28 (0.76; 2.15)0.550.530.91 (0.55; 1.52)0.0103
LOMV, mean ± (SD)4.3 (1.3)4.2 (1.4)0.98 (0.83; 1.15)3.3 (1.5)2.89 (1.6)0.94 (0.83; 1.06)3.7 (2.52)0 (0.00)0.1729
Use of Surfactant, 𝑛 (%)
 Very early45 (51.1)12 (26.7)138 (48.1)5 (13.2)123 (51.1)3 (13.0)10.2115
 Rescue therapy12 (13.6)10 (83.3)1.76 (1.33; 2.34)13 (16.5)8 (61.5)1.62 (1.32; 2.00)2 (4.4)0 (0.0)0.88 (0.53; 1.46)0.0592
 No surfactant31 (35.2)22 (71.0)1.56 (1.27; 1.91)27 (34.2)1 (3.6)0.91 (0.77; 1.07)20 (44.4)3 (15.0)1.02 (0.83; 1.26)<0.0001

Postnatal diagnosis
 Air leak syndrome, 𝑛 (%)4 (4.6)3 (75.0)1.30 (0.78; 2.15)6 (7.6)3 (50.0)1.42 (1.04; 1.93)2 (4.4)0 (0.0)0.87 (0.54; 1.41)0.2860
 PDA (%)57 (64.8)25 (43.9)1.16 (0.93; 1.45)54 (68.4)5 (9.3)1.31 (1.10; 1.55)37 (82.2)4 (10.8)1.53 (0.89; 1.49)<0.0001
 Sepsis (%)32 (36.4)23 (71.9)1.38 (1.12; 1.71)48 (60.8)11 (22.9)1.14 (0.96; 1.35)29 (64.4)5 (17.2)1.12 (0.91; 1.37)<0.0001

C omparison of BPD cases among cities.