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ISRN Hematology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 690901, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/690901
Review Article

Regulation of Immune Responses by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

1Allergy and Immune Disorders Group, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia
2Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia
3Epigenomic Medicine Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
4Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia

Received 30 November 2011; Accepted 10 January 2012

Academic Editors: A. Bosly and C. Panizo

Copyright © 2012 Paul V. Licciardi and Tom C. Karagiannis. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Both genetic and epigenetic factors are important regulators of the immune system. There is an increasing body of evidence attesting to epigenetic modifications that influence the development of distinct innate and adaptive immune response cells. Chromatin remodelling via acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination of histone proteins as well as DNA, methylation is epigenetic mechanisms by which immune gene expression can be controlled. In this paper, we will discuss the role of epigenetics in the regulation of host immunity, with particular emphasis on histone deacetylase inhibitors. In particular, the role of HDAC inhibitors as a new class of immunomodulatory therapeutics will also be reviewed.