- About this Journal ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
ISRN Mathematical Physics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 704612, 11 pages
Viscous Bianchi Type I Universe with Stiff Matter and Decaying Vacuum Energy Density
1Department of Mathematics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004, India
2Department of Mathematical Sciences, A. P. S. University, Rewa 486003, India
Received 11 April 2012; Accepted 7 May 2012
Academic Editors: S. C. Lim and M. Rasetti
Copyright © 2012 Raj Bali et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
We examine homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type I cosmological model with viscous stiff matter and time-varying cosmological term which scales with Hubble parameter H. The resulting model approaches isotropy. The cosmological term relaxes to a genuine cosmological constant, and the model in the absence of bulk viscosity tends to a deSitter universe asymptotically. Our scenario presents an initial epoch with decelerating expansion followed by late-time acceleration consistent with observations. Bulk viscosity advances the accelerating phase in the model and prevents the matter density to vanish for large times.
Stiff fluid cosmological models create more interest in the study because, for these models, the speed of light equals the speed of sound, and its governing equations have the same characteristics as those of gravitational field . Barrow  in his investigation has also pointed out that the entropy level of the universe makes it likely that its initial state was isotropic and quiescent (, ) rather than chaotic only if the equation of state for high density of matter tends to stiff ( being matter density and , the isotropic pressure). Keeping in view the importance of stiff fluid models, Bali and Sharma , Bali et al. , and Mak and Harko [5, 6] have investigated cosmological models for stiff fluid distribution in different contexts.
It has been argued for a long time that the dissipative process in early stages of cosmic expansion may well account for the high degree of isotropy we observe today. Dissipative effects involving both the bulk and shear viscosity play a significant role in the early evolution of the universe. The inclusion of dissipative terms in the energy-momentum tensor of cosmic fluid seems to be the best motivated generalization of the matter term of the gravitational field equations. Eckart  developed the first relativistic theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics to the effect of bulk viscosity. Padmanabhan and Chitre  pointed out that the presence of bulk viscosity leads to inflationary-like situations in general relativity. Johri and Sudarshan  have shown that bulk viscosity acts like a negative energy field in an expanding universe. Romano and Pavón  have investigated the evolution of Bianchi type I universe with viscous fluid. The effect of bulk viscosity on the cosmological evolution has been investigated by a number of authors namely, Saha [11–13], Singh et al. , Sahni and Starobinsky , Peebles and Ratra , Bali and Pradhan , Bali and Kumawat , and Bali .
A wide range of observations suggest that universe possesses a non-zero cosmological constant. The cosmological constant is the most favoured candidate of dark energy representing energy density of vacuum. Zel’dovich , Dreitlein , and Krauss and Turner  have studied its significance. Recently Barrow and Shaw  suggested that cosmological term corresponds to a very small value of the order when applied to Friedmann universe. Linde  has investigated that is a function of temperature and is related to the spontaneous symmetry-breaking process. A number of cosmological models in which decays with time have been investigated by Sahni and Starobinsky , Bertolami , Beesham , Berman , Singh and Desikan , Abdussattar and Vishwakarma , Bronnikov et al. , Bali and Singh , and Ram and Verma .
In this paper we investigate viscous Bianchi type I cosmological model containing stiff matter and a cosmological term scaling with Hubble parameter . We find that the model evolves with decelerating expansion in the initial epoch followed by late-time accelerating phase. The model approaches isotropy in the limit of large times, and shear viscosity accelerates the isotropization process. The presence of bulk viscosity prevents the matter density to vanish asymptotically. In the absence of viscosity, the model tends to a deSitter universe for large time .
2. Basic Equations
The line element for homogeneous, anisotropic Bianchi type I space-time with flat space sections in synchronous coordinate frame is given by We consider the matter component of source field to be viscous fluid described by the energy-momentum tensor where is the effective pressure related to the equilibrium pressure by Here is the energy density of matter, and are the coefficients of shear and bulk viscosity respectively, , the four-velocity vector of the fluid satisfying, , is the expansion scalar and is the shear tensor defined by where is the projection tensor.
The shear viscosity characterizes a change in shape of a fixed volume of the fluid, whereas the bulk viscosity characterizes a change in volume of the fluid of a fixed shape.
We choose gravitational units such that . Since the vacuum has the symmetry of the background, its energy-momentum tensor has the form , where is a function of time in a homogeneous space. In comoving coordinates system (), it corresponds to a perfect fluid with energy density and pressure . The Einstein’s field equations with viscous matter and vacuum energy are given by where with the understanding that and are total energy density and total pressure, respectively. The Bianchi identities require that has a vanishing divergence. The surviving components of the field equations (2.5) for the Bianchi type I metric are Here and henceforth, an overhead dot (·) denotes ordinary derivative with respect to cosmic time , and semicolon (;) stands for covariant derivative. We define average scale factor for Bianchi type I space-time as Generalized Hubble parameter and generalized deceleration parameter are defined as where , , and are directional Hubble's factors along , , and directions, respectively. For Bianchi type I metric expressions for volume expansion scalar and shear tensor come out to be Magnitude of the shear tensor is given by From (2.6) to (2.8), we obtain the following two equations after integration: From (2.10) and (2.14), we obtain that We consider the shear viscosity scaling with the expansion scalar , that is, being constant and bulk viscosity of the form given by Meng and Ren  where and are constants. Using (2.16) in (2.15), we obtain that Shear scalar in this case turns out to be implying that the shear viscosity accelerates the isotropization. Field equations (2.6)–(2.9) can be expressed in terms of , and as From (2.20) and (2.21), we get the following: We observe that bulk viscosity and positive drive the acceleration of the universe whereas active gravitational mass density and anisotropy are responsible for deceleration. Also, presence of bulk viscosity slows down the rate of decrease of volume expansion .
3. Solutions of the Field Equations and Discussion
We observe that (2.6)–(2.9), (2.16), and (2.17) are six equations in eight unknowns , , , , , , , and . We require two more equations to obtain a determinate solution. Following Schützhold [35, 36], we consider the decaying vacuum energy density where is a positive constant and non-vacuum component of matter to be stiff fluid Let be the ratio between the vacuum and matter densities. From (2.21) and (3.1), we get the following: which determines the precise value of from the observed current values of , , and .
Equations (2.20) and (2.21) together with (3.1) and (3.2) give rise to determining the time evolution of Hubble parameter. Equation (3.5) with the use of (2.17) assumes the form We integrate (3.6) to obtain that where the integration constants are related to the choice of origin and , .
On integration, (3.7) yields where is constant of integration. For the model, matter density , vacuum density , and cosmological parameters , , and have the following expressions: We observe that the model has singularity at . It evolves with a big bang at , where , , , and all diverge. Matter density varies as whereas vacuum energy density as . Thus, the matter density decays faster than the vacuum energy density. Bulk viscosity component arrests the rate of decay. Energy density associated with anisotropy decays as contributing to matter production. Therefore, the presence of shear viscosity accelerates the decay of anisotropy energy. At early times and concluding that matter density is dominant in the beginning of the universe and deceleration of the expanding universe is reduced by the presence of bulk viscous component . In the limit of large times, we obtain that
We observe that the presence of bulk viscosity does not allow the matter density to become zero in infinitely far future. Also, at late times cosmological term tends to a genuine cosmological constant. Anisotropy in the model vanishes asymptotically. The model evolves with decelerating expansion followed by accelerating one at late times. Initial anisotropy of the model dies out asymptotically. We also observe that our solution does not exactly tend to a deSitter universe due to bulk viscosity.
As particular cases of the above solution, when only one component or of the bulk viscosity is present, we can obtain the physical quantities of the resulting models by replacing by when , and by 3 when , in (3.8) and (3.13). In case only is nonzero, we see that matter density varies as in accordance with the standard model whereas vacuum energy density decays as . In this case at the initial epoch. When only is nonvanishing component of bulk viscosity , matter density decays as and vacuum density as . Since , the presence of bulk viscosity component slows down the rate of decay. In this case at early times implying that deceleration of the expanding universe goes down by .
We observe that initial epoch of the universe is dominated by matter density, and it decays faster than vacuum energy density. Time for which the cosmological term turns out to be of the order of matter energy density is given by the condition . For this condition, we obtain from (3.4) and (3.7) In the presence of bulk viscosity, the ratio tends to a constant in the limit of large times. We also observe that the model starts with decelerating expansion, and expansion in the model changes from decelerating phase to accelerating one. Equating , we can calculate the time when expansion changes from decelerating to accelerating phase. We use (3.4) and (3.13) to get that Therefore, due to bulk viscosity, accelerating phase occurs earlier than in the case of perfect fluid. Time evolution of some cosmological parameters is shown graphically in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4.
We have examined the possibility of viscous stiff matter distribution in the background of homogeneous anisotropic Bianchi type I space-time with a cosmological term which scales with Hubble parameter . Coefficient of shear viscosity is assumed to vary as expansion scalar whereas bulk viscosity is taken of the form , , being constants. Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations have been obtained. The resulting model evolves with decelerating expansion in the initial epoch followed by a late time accelerated expansion presenting an appropriate expansion history of the universe consistent with observations [37–39]. We observe that the model approaches isotropy for large values of , and presence of shear viscosity accelerates the isotropization process. Cosmological term being very large at initial times relaxes to a genuine cosmological constant asymptotically. In the absence of bulk viscosity, the model results in a deSitter universe for large values of with . We find that the initial phase is dominated by matter density which tends asymptotically to a constant. The ratio between the vacuum and matter densities tends asymptotically to a constant. Presence of bulk viscosity prevents matter density to vanish for large . We also observe that bulk viscous component slows down the rate of decrease of volume expansion. Due to bulk viscosity, accelerating phase occurs earlier than the perfect fluid case.
Authors are thankful to Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India for providing facility where the part of this work was completed.
- Ya. B. Zel’dovich, “A hypothesis, unifying the structure and the entropy of the Universe,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 160, p. 1, 1972.
- J. D. Barrow, “Quiescent cosmology,” Nature, vol. 272, pp. 211–215, 1978.
- R. Bali and K. Sharma, “Tilted Bianchi Type I stiff fluid magnetized cosmological model in general relativity,” Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 283, pp. 11–22, 2003.
- R. Bali, M. Ali, and V. C. Jain, “Magnetized stiff fluid cylindrically symmetric universe with two degrees of freedom in general relativity,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 2218–2229, 2008.
- M. K. Mak and T. Harko, “Exact dissipative cosmologies with stiff fluid,” Europhysics Letters, vol. 56, pp. 762–767, 2001.
- M. K. Mak and T. Harko, “Full causal dissipative cosmologies with stiff matter,” International Journal of Modern Physics D, vol. 13, pp. 273–280, 2004.
- C. Eckart, “The thermodynamics of irreversible processes, III. Relativistic theory of the simple fluid,” Physical Review, vol. 58, pp. 919–924, 1940.
- T. Padmanabhan and S. M. Chitre, “Viscous Universe,” Physics Letter A, vol. 120, no. 9, pp. 433–436, 1987.
- V. B. Johri and R. Sudarshan, in Proceedings of the Proceedings of International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Science and Technology, World Scientific, Singapore, 1988.
- V. Romano and D Pavón, “Causal dissipative Bianchi cosmology,” Physical Review D, vol. 47, pp. 1396–1403, 1993.
- B. Saha, “Bianchi type I universe with viscous fluid,” Modern Physics Letters A, vol. 20, no. 28, pp. 2127–2143, 2005.
- B. Saha, “Nonlinear spinor field in Bianchi type-I cosmology: Inflation, isotropization, and late time acceleration,” Physical Review D, vol. 74, Article ID 124030, p. 1685, 2006.
- B. Saha, “Anisotropic cosmological models with spinor field and viscous fluid in the presence of Lambda term: qualitative solutions,” Journal of Physics A, vol. 40, no. 46, pp. 14011–14027, 2007.
- C. P. Singh, S. Kumar, and A. Pradhan, “Early viscous universe with variable gravitational and cosmological “ constants”,” Classical and Quantum Gravity, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 455–474, 2007.
- V. Sahni and A. Starobinsky, “The case for a positive cosmological -term,” International Journal of Modern Physics D, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 373–443, 2000.
- P. J. E. Peebles and B. Ratra, “The cosmological constant and dark energy,” Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 559–606, 2003.
- R. Bali and A. Pradhan, “Bianchi type-III string cosmological models with time dependent bulk viscosity,” Chinese Physics Letters, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 585–588, 2007.
- R. Bali and P. Kumawat, “Bulk viscous L.R.S. Bianchi type V tilted stiff fluid cosmological model in general relativity,” Physics Letters B, vol. 665, no. 5, pp. 332–337, 2008.
- R. Bali, “Bianchi type V magnetized string dust bulk viscous fluid cosmological model with variable magnetic permeability,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 476–486, 2009.
- Ya. B. Zel’dovich, “The cosmological constant and the theory of elementary particles,” Soviet Physics Uspekhi, vol. 11, no. 3, article 381, 1968.
- J. Dreitlein, “Broken symmetry and the cosmological constant,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 33, pp. 1243–1244, 1974.
- L. M. Krauss and M. S. Turner, “The cosmological constant is back,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 27, pp. 1137–1144, 1995.
- J. D. Barrow and D. J. Shaw, “The value of the cosmological constant,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 2555–2560, 2011.
- A. D. Linde, “Is the Lee constant a cosmological constant?” JETP Letters, vol. 19, p. 183, 1974.
- O. Bertolami, “Time-dependence cosmological term,” Nuovo Cimento B, vol. 93, p. 36, 1986.
- A. Beesham, “Variable- G cosmology and creation,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1295–1298, 1986.
- M. S. Berman, “Cosmological models with variable gravitational and cosmological “constants”,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 465–469, 1991.
- G. P. Singh and K. Desikan, “A new class of cosmological models in Lyra geometry,” Pramana, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 205–212, 1997.
- Abdussattar and R. G. Vishwakarma, “Some FRW models with variable and ,” Classical and Quantum Gravity, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 945–953, 1997.
- K. A. Bronnikov, A. Dobosz, and I. G. Dymnikova, “Nonsingular vacuum cosmologies with a variable cosmological term,” Classical and Quantum Gravity, vol. 20, no. 16, pp. 3797–3814, 2003.
- R. Bali and J. P. Singh, “Bulk viscous Bianchi type I cosmological models with time-dependent cosmological term ,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 3288–3297, 2008.
- S. Ram and M. K. Verma, “Bulk viscous fluid hypersurface–homogeneous cosmological models with time varying G and ,” Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 330, pp. 151–156, 2010.
- J. P. Singh and R. K. Tiwari, “An LRS Bianchi type-I cosmological model with time-dependent term,” International Journal of Modern Physics D, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 745–754, 2007.
- X. H. Meng and J. Ren, “Cosmology with extended Chaplygin gas media and crossing,” Communications in Theoretical Physics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 379–384, 2007.
- R. Schützhold, “Small cosmological constant from the QCD trace anomaly?” Physical Review Letters, vol. 89, Article ID 081302, 2002.
- R. Schützhold, “On the cosmological constant and the cosmic coincidence problem,” International Journal of Modern Physics A, vol. 17, p. 4359, 2002.
- A. G. Riess, L.-G. Strolger, J. Tonry, et al., “Type Ia supernova discoveries at from the Hubble space telescope: evidence for past deceleration and constraints on dark energy evolution,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 607, no. 2, p. 665, 2004.
- R. A. Knop, G. Aldering, R. Amanullah, et al., “New constraints on , , and w from an independent set of 11 high-redshift supernovae observed with the Hubble Space Telescope,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 598, no. 1, p. 102, 2003.
- M. Tegmark, M. A. Strauss, M. R. Blanton, et al., “Cosmological parameters from SDSS and WMAP,” Physical Review D, vol. 69, no. 10, Article ID 103501, 2004.