- About this Journal ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
ISRN Renewable Energy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 730631, 15 pages
Hydropower in the Context of Sustainable Energy Supply: A Review of Technologies and Challenges
1Waterpower Laboratory, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
7491 Trondheim, Norway
2Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35091, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Received 7 November 2012; Accepted 3 December 2012
Academic Editors: B. Limmeechokchai, F. E. Little, Z. Oktay, L. Ozgener, and A. Stoppato
Copyright © 2012 Chiyembekezo S. Kaunda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- A. Bauen, “Future energy sources and systems—acting on climate change and energy security,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 157, no. 2, pp. 893–901, 2006.
- V. Gorshkov and A. Makarieva, Knowledge of the Environment. Quality of Human Resources Volume 1, UNESCO Encyclopaedia of Life Support Systems, 2005.
- International Energy Agency, “2011 key world energy statistics,” IEA Report, The Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), 2012.
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, chapter 5: hydropower,” Special Report of IPCC, Cambridge University Printing Press, 2012.
- British Petroleum, “Statistical review of world energy,” BP Report, British Petroleum, London, UK, 2012.
- InterAcademy Council, Lighting the Way: Toward a Sustainable Energy Future Report, Energy Supply, Chapter 3, The InterAcademy Council, The Netherlands, 2007.
- V. Modi, S. McDade, D. Lallement, and J. Saghir, Energy and the Millennium Development Goals, The Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme, United Nations Development Programme, UN Millennium Project, and World Bank, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
- E. Tsimas, A. Georgakaki, and S. Peteves, “Future fossil fuel electricity generation in Europe: options and consequences,” Reference Report JRC, 42187, The Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, The Netherlands, 2009.
- M. Tolba, The World Environment 1972–1992: Two Decades of Challenge, Chapman and Hall for UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya.
- W. Lutz, W. Sandersen, M. Baker, J. Carter, and C. Wood, The End of World Population Growth: Human Capital and Sustainable Development in the 21st Century, Earthscan, London, UK, 1st edition, 2004.
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change: Working Group 1—The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007.
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Third assessment report, scientific basis: definitions (Appendix),” IPCC Report, 2001.
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), UNFCCC Background, UNFCCC Information, http://unfccc.int/essential_background/items/6031.php, 2012.
- Young Europeans Discuss Sustainable Development (ENSAA), Defining Climate Change, ENSAA Information, 2012.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Greenhouse Gas Overview, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2012.
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report by Working Group III, Mitigation of Climate Change: Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends, IPCC Reports, 2007.
- J. Olivier, G. Janssens-Maenhout, and J. Peters, “Trends in global CO2 emissions 2012 report,” Tech. Rep. 500114022, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency.
- T. Morrigan, Target Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Concentration: Why Should Humanity Aim For 350 Ppm CO2eq?University of California, Global and International Studies Department, 2010.
- J. Ebinger and W. Vergara, Climate Impacts on Energy Systems: Key Issues for Energy Sector Adaptation, Energy Sector Management Assistant Program (ESMAP) of the World Bank, 2011.
- S. Teske, T. Pregger, S. Simon, T. Naegler, W. Graus, and C. Lins, “Energy revolution 2010—a sustainable world energy outlook,” Journal of Energy Efficiency, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 409–433, 2010.
- M. Walton and L. Hendrix, The Promise of Renewables: Recent Success and Challenges of Getting to Scale—Commentary, The Geopolitics of Cleaner Energy, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Washington DC, USA, 2012.
- C. Kaunda, C. Kimambo, and T. Nielsen, “Potential of small-scale hydropower for electricity generation in Sub-Saharan Africa,” ISRN Renewable Energy, vol. 2012, Article ID 132606, 15 pages, 2012.
- World Energy Council, Survey of Energy Resources: Hydropower, Country Reports, World Energy Council, London, UK, 2007.
- L. Jinghe, “Status and prospects of the small-scale hydro technologies in China,” in Proceedings of the China Renewable Energy Development Strategy Workshop, p. 95, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, October 2005.
- S. Majumdar, The Current Scenario of Developments in Renewable Energy in India: Hydro Energy Report, Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Partnerships (REEEP), 2008.
- L. Kosnik, “The potential for small scale hydropower development in the US,” Energy Policy, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 5512–5519, 2010.
- Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, “Facts 2008: energy and water resources in Norway,” Norwegian Government Report.
- C. Penche, “Guide on how to develop a small hydropower plant,” Technical Manual, European Small Hydropower Association, Brussels, Belgium, 2004.
- South African Department of Minerals and Energy, “Baseline study: hydropower in South Africa, department of minerals and energy, capacity building in energy efficiency and renewable energy,” Tech. Rep. 2. 3. 4-19, Department of Minerals and Energy, Bangui, South Africa, 2004.
- International Energy Agency, Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower, International Energy Agency, 2010.
- World Commission for dams and W. Klunne, “Sustainable development of village level hydropower in Eastern and Southern Africa,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Biannual Conference on Science Real and Relevant, p. 4, International Convention Centre (CSIR), Pretoria, South Africa, 2010.
- International Energy Agency, Hydropower and the Environment: Present Context and Guidelines for Future Action, Subtask 5 Main IEA Report, Volume 2, International Energy Agency, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000.
- USA Department of Energy, Hydropower Technology Information. Basic Energy Information, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/water/hydro_plant_types.html, 2012.
- A. Brown, S. Muller, and Z. Dobrotkova, “Renewable energy markets and prospects by technology,” International Energy Agency (IEA) Information Paper, International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris, France.
- International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), “Renewable energy technologies—cost analysis series, volume 1: power sector,” IRENA Working Paper 3/5, 2012.
- H. Locker, Environmental Issues and Management for Hydropower Peaking Operations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-ESA), 2004.
- E. Roth, “Why thermal power plants have relatively low efficiency,” Sustainable Energy for All (SEAL) Paper, February 2005 Issue, 8 pages, Leonardo ENERGY, https://docs.google.com/file/d/0BzBU0gQlsdocYmI1NDkyMDctY2RmYy00YzY0LTgwYmYtY2RjZGFhN2U1ZDk2/edit?hl=en_GB&pli=1.
- B. Haya, P. McCully, and B. Pearson, Damming the CDM: Why Big Hydro Is Ruining the Clean Development MechanIsm, International Rivers Network and Clean Develeopment Mechanism Watch, 2010.
- R. Venkateswaran, “Small hydro potential in India,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Association for Small Hydropower, Hangzhou, China, June 2007.
- H. Raghunath, Hydrology: Principles, Analysis and Design, New Age International, New Delhi, India, 2nd edition, 2009.
- J. Perez-Diaz, J. Sarasua, J. Fraile-Ardanuy, J. Wilhelmi, and J. Sanchez, “A control system for low-head diversion run-of-river small hydro plants with pressure conduits considering the tailwater level variation,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ '10), Granada, Spain, March 2010.
- T. Douglas, ‘Green’ Hydro Power: Understanding Impacts, Approvals, and Sustainability of Run-of-River Independent Power Projects in British Columbia, Watershed Watch Salmon Society, 2007.
- M. Gondwe, “Aspects of climate change: impacts on generation—the case of Malawi's Runof-River hydropower schemes,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Hydropower (Hydropower '10), International Centre for Hydropower (ICH), Tromsø, Norway, February 2010.
- Y. Gogus, “Pumped water energy storage,” in Energy Storage Systems, vol. 1, pp. 281–301, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, 2011.
- B. Brook, Pumped Hydro Energy Storage—Cost Estimates for a Feasible System, BravenewClimate, Adelaide, Australia, 2010.
- M. R. Mohan, S. R. Paranjothi, and S. Prince Israel, “Use of pumped-hydro as peak-load management plant in optimal scheduling of power systems,” Electric Machines and Power Systems, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1047–1061, 1996.
- World Energy Council, Survey of Energy Resources: Hydropower, World Energy Council, 2010.
- Alternative Energy Primer, “Hydropower originates from the sun,” http://www.alternativeenergyprimer.com/Hydropower.html, 2012.
- International Journal of Hydropower and Dams, World Hydropower Atlas & Industry Guide, International Journal of Hydropower and Dams, Wallington, UK, 2010.
- International Hydropower Association (IHA), IHA, 2010 Activity Report, IHA, London, UK, 2010.
- A. Eberhard, V. Foster, C. Briceno-Garmendia, F. Ouedraogo, D. Camos, and M. Shkaratan, Underpowered: The State of the Power Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank Document under the Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic Project—Summary of Background Paper 6, http://www.infrastructureafrica.org/system/files/BP6_Power_sector_maintxt.pdf.
- International Hydropower Association (IHA), IHA, 2011 Activity Report, International Hydropower Association, London, UK, 2011.
- D. Egré and J. C. Milewski, “The diversity of hydropower projects,” Energy Policy, vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1225–1230, 2002.
- R. Sternberg, “Hydropower: dimensions of social and environmental coexistence,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1588–1621, 2008.
- M. Cernea, “Hydropower dams and social impacts: a sociological perspective,” Social Development Papers, World Bank Paper 16, 1997.
- R. Howarth, R. Santoro, and A. Ingraffea, “Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations,” Journal of Climatic Change, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 679–690, 2011.
- B. Dessus and B. Laponche, “Reducing methane emissions: the other climate change challenge,” Working Paper 68, Agence Française de Développement, Paris, France, 2008.
- P. Fearnside, “Greenhouse gas emissions from a hydroelectric reservoir (Brazil's Tucurui dam) and the energy policy implications,” Journal of Water, Air and Soil Pollution, vol. 133, no. 1–4, pp. 69–96, 2002.
- V. L. S. Louis, C. A. Kelly, E. Duchemin, J. W. M. Rudd, and D. M. Rosenberg, “Reservoir surfaces as sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere: a global estimate,” BioScience, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 766–775, 2000.
- A. Kemenes, B. Forsberg, and J. Melack, “Methane release below a tropical hydroelectric dam,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, article L12809, 2007.
- P. M. Fearnside, “Greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric dams: controversies provide a springboard for rethinking a supposedly “clean” energy source. An editorial comment,” Climatic Change, vol. 66, no. 1-2, pp. 1–8, 2004.
- F. Guerin, G. Abril, S. Richard et al., “Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from tropical reservoirs: significance of downstream rivers,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 33, article L21407, 2006.
- L. P. Rosa, M. A. dos Santos, B. Matvienko, E. O. dos Santos, and E. Sikar, “Greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs in tropical regions,” Climatic Change, vol. 66, no. 1-2, pp. 9–21, 2004.
- M. Lenzen, “Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions of nuclear energy: a review,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 2178–2199, 2008.
- H. L. Raadal, L. Gagnon, I. S. Modahl, and O. J. Hanssen, “Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the generation of wind and hydro power,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 3417–3422, 2011.
- P. C. D. Milly, K. A. Dunne, and A. V. Vecchia, “Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7066, pp. 347–350, 2005.
- B. Bates, Z. Kundzewicz, S. Wu, and J. Palutikof, “Climate change and water,” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Technical Paper, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.
- B. Hamududu and A. Killingtveit, “Assessing cimate cange ipacts on gobal hydropower,” Journal of Energies, vol. 5, pp. 305–322, 2012.
- O. Martin, L. Lillehammer, and O. Hveling, “Hydropower development and curbing climate gas emissions: a win-win opportunity,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Hydropower (Hydropower '10), International Centre for Hydropower, Tromsø, Norway, February 2010.
- A. Iimi, “Estimating global climate change impacts on hydropower projects: applications in India, Sri Lanka and Vietnam,” Policy Research Working Paper 4344, Sustainable Development Network, The World Bank, 2007.
- K. Nair, “An analysis of the issues associated with hydropower generation in Kerala-India, under changing climate,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Hydropower (Hydropower '10), International Centre for Hydropower, Tromsø, Norway, February 2010.
- J. Aragon, “Vulnerability of hydroelectric plants in tropical Basins with high slope in Cost Lica,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Hydropower (Hydropower '10), International Centre for Hydropower, Tromsø, Norway, February 2010.
- S. Elakanda, “Impacts of climate change on hydropower generation in Sri Lanka,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Hydropower Conference on Hydropower (Hydropower '10), International Centre for Hydropower, Tromsø, Norway, February 2010.